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Source: International Hotels and Restaurants Association

Kingfisher Bay Resort & Village
Fraser Island, Australia

Kingfisher Bay Resort & Village is located on the west coast of UNESCO's World Heritage-listed Fraser Island, 250km north of Brisbane. The site encompasses 65ha and includes a 152-roomed hotel, 75 self-contained villas, a 114-bed Wilderness Lodge, a day-visitor pavilion, the staff village, 3 restaurants and conference rooms for up to 300 people.

Kingfisher Bay was built to strict environmental guidelines with the aim of offering a modern resort to blend harmoniously with the island's sensitive ecosystem. Before construction began, extensive environmental impact assessments were performed. Additional research was undertaken to examine certain areas in more detail: topography vegetation and fauna surveys, an hydology survey and studies of previous aboriginal use and habitation of the site. Findings of these studies gave rise to several management challenges and further advice was obtained to ensure that construction and operation of the resort would be carried out with minimum disturbance to the ecosystem. Kingfisher Bay estimates that over 57 person years of research, planning and design Went into the project.

High level of environmental integration
From the outset, every effort was made to minimize environmental impact and achieve a high level of environmental integration:

• Roads and buildings are planned around the major trees to the greatest extent possible.
• All buildings are designed to harmonize with the environment using Queensland-style architecture made of wood with open verandas and curving tin roofs to reflect the sand dunes. Colours reflect the surrounding bush vegetation.
• Buildings are limited to 2 levels, and are below the tree line. • All timber used is from indigenous species
• The hotel centre complex (conference rooms, reception, lounge rooms, restaurants, administration offices and toilets) is designed without air¬conditioning. Natural convection currents are created by windows and vents at the upper and lower levels of the building. In summer, cool air is drawn into the building throughout the day while hot air escapes through the large ceiling vents. In winter, vents are closed to trap warm air resulting in a "glass house" effect.
• All rooms and public areas have enough natural light during daylight hours to eliminate the need for artificial lighting on fine days. Insulation has been maximized in all rooms.
• All public areas, conference rooms, bedrooms and offices are non-smoking. Smoker bedrooms are available on request.
• Impacts on the dunes and swamps are minimized through the use of either hardwood boardwalks or wood chip walking tracks.
• The resort has an on-site sewage treatment plant.

Economic & environmental benefits:
The design of the resort is estimated to save over 500,000kwh of energy each year, which is equivalent to the energy consumption of 100 households.

Minimizing Environmental Impact
The introduction of mainland soil diseases was prevented by using landfill obtained from the Kingfisher Bay site itself or from approved mainland sources. Natural materials removed from the site were mulched and used for landscaping.

Native plants from the site and surrounding area were used for landscaping. I
Thousands of plants were removed prior to construction and held in an on-site
nursery for replanting later. A further 150,000 native plants were raised from seeds and cuttings. The on-site nursery continues to provide for all the resort's landscaping needs.

Run-off from roads and roofs is diverted into large lakes within the resort area to reduce scouring, creating natural-looking peat lakes which attract a diverse range of wildlife.

Waste water treated through the biotechnological plant is not used for irrigation as the nutrient requirement levels of the soil and vegetation on Fraser Island are very low Treated water is released into the fast-moving channel in the Great Sandy Strait.

A key card is required to power each room. This ensures that all energy is turned off when the room is vacant. Air-conditioning units have to be switched on manually.

All waste generated by the resort is separated, compacted, stored on site and sent to the mainland for recycling. Glass waste is crushed before being sent for recycling.

Kingfisher Bay has set-up a community consultative committee to ensure the resort maintains good communication links with various interest groups in the community. Conservation, Aboriginal, and resident groups are represented on this committee.

Kingfisher Bay actively encourages research programmes relevant to the Fraser Island ecosystem and to ecotourism. These include:
• Mammal research on the behaviour of small native marsupials,
• Kingfisher Bay's parent company, Queensland Tourism Industries Ltd, offers 5 grants each year to postgraduate students doing Ecotourism research.

Within the framework of the resort's environmental interpretation programme, several educational initiatives are in operation to increase the environmental awareness and sensitivity of visitors. They include:
• Fraser Wild Nature Programme, courses hosted by specialists to give guests an opportunity to further their knowledge.
• Environmental Education Programme for Schools, conducted with practical interaction with the resort's rangers.

Staff induction programmes include an environmental good conduct video.

Visitor communication
A 4 stage programme is in place - promotion, orientation, involvement and reinforcement. Within this framework several interpretation programmes, self¬guide tours, displays, publications and videos are available to guests. The interpretation programmes include guided walks, four-wheel drive tours, marine tours and "meet the ranger" activities. Kingfisher Bay employs 13 full-time rangers on these programmes.

"Kingfisher Bay has sought to integrate planning, design, landscapes, interpretative programmes, and tourism to truly represent the World Heritage values of Fraser Island. This integration is our major attraction. Fraser Island is the focus of our guest's holiday and Kingfisher Bay is the facilitator."

Tony Charters
Director, Environmental Management

Neptune Hotel
Copenhagen, Denmark

The Neptune Hotel has 133 rooms including 16 executive units and 5 conference rooms for up to 70 persons. It is located in the Frederiksstaden quarter of Copenhagen, close to the Amalienborg Palace, the harbour promenade and the main shopping area. It belongs to the Neptune Group which also operates the Hotel Esplanaden, and the Gendarmen Cafe/Restaurant. The Hotel is a recipient of the "Green Key" - a Danish environmental certificate awarded to hotels that pay special attention to environment and health.

"Nordic Light Style"
At the end of 1995, 11 suites were refurbished in the "Nordic Light Style" a new concept in decor and furnishing conceived by the Neptune's proprietor and administrative director. Based on late 18th century Scandinavian interior design concepts, it incorporates environmental considerations in all elements of decor and furnishing. The selection of textiles, furnishings, bedding, paints and lacquers is made according to evidence that environmental impact has been mitigated throughout the production process. All guest amenities are made from natural products, or products made from recycled material.

Rooms are non-smoking and specially designed for visitors suffering from allergies and other environmental illnesses. (They have been approved under the guidelines of the Danish Asthma Association).

All taps and toilets are equipped with water saving devices.

The "energy saver" key card
The hotel has had an "energy saver" key card system since 1994, when it was used by the electrical conglomerate Thorn EMI to pilot their new system. The key card operates on a relay system. On entering the room the guest inserts the key card into a card holder which turns on all electrical outlets and lights in the room. Once the card is removed, all electrical outlets, except the minibar are turned off in 30 seconds.

Individually controlled air conditioning
All individual air conditioning units in guest rooms are computer controlled and are set at a. standard temperature. Guests can turn the unit on and off, but they must contact reception to regulate the temperature.

Guest rooms are supplied with two waste baskets, one for burnable items and one for non burnable items such as plastic containers and empty aerosol cans.cartridges in printers are returned to the suppliers for refilling.
Purchasinguppliers are asked to provide specifications to guarantee the environmental sensitivity and quality of their products. All paper products have to be recycled.


Training is given to all staff to incorporate environmental housekeeping practices in their daily routines.

Visitor communication
The environmental action plan is displayed at reception. An information folder on the energy saving key card is given to guests when checking-in. Through the guest questionnaire "Who Cares", Neptune receives comments on its environmental programme.

Economic & environmental benefits:
Neptune Hotel is convinced that its environmental work has played an important role in enhancing its corporate image and increasing occupancy over the last few years. The response of travel agencies and tour operators has also been encouraging.

"We combine cost saving with environmental protection. When people think of environmental measures, they often associate them with austerity or ultra simplicity. It is our intention to prove the contrary and to demonstrate that we can live in comfort while taking care of the environment."

Mrs Bente Noyons
Owner and Administrative Director

Hotel Nikko Hongkong
lHA Corporate Green Hotelier of the Year 1995

The 17-floor Hotel Nikko Hongkong, is situated on the waterfront of the Victoria Harbour next to the shopping area of Kowloon. Included in its 462 rooms are 19 suites. The ballroom can hold receptions for up to 460, and four additional function rooms with seating capacity for 55 to 230 people. The hotel has four restaurants and two bars. It also operates a business centre, swimming pool, health club and a shopping arcade.

Reducing water consumption
After experimenting with devices such as plastic flow restricters, Hotel Nikko installed a calibrated water control system, the "Platypus System", in June 1995. The core element of this system is a compact valve which is inserted into the hydraulic system to control the flow and temperature balance of each tap or shower. The correct type and size of valve is chosen for each tap or shower, depending on factors such as required water temperature, pressure and flow rate. The advantages of this system are:
• Water flow is constant, flow fluctuations from each tap or shower are eliminated
• Changes in water temperature are eliminated
• Water hammer, velocity noise and splashing when taps are turned on, are substantially reduced
• Filters improve the quality of the water delivered to guests.

Economic and environmental benefits:
The water control system was installed in June 1995. Between July 1995 arid June 1996, despite an average occupancy increase of 4% over the previous year, water consumption per guest decreased by an average of 13%, equating to HK$ 13,000 (US$ 1,688) saved per month. (Note: This figure could be as high as 30% as it does not include water consumption for laundry)

Since the installation of the water control system, consurnpticmi of hot water has fallen and correspondingly, the use of fuel for the hot water boilers has decreased by an average of 4% or 2,000 litres per month. This amounts to savings of approximately HK$5,600 (US$724) in fuel costs.

Taking into account the energy saved, the payback period is estimated to be 30 months. However, if the savings on the Trade Effluent Discharge (imposed in April 1995) and the Sewerage Discharge fees were included, the payback period would be considerably shorter.

Reducing the use of fresh water
The chiller plant operates on a sea water cooling system, which eliminates the use of scarce fresh water. Towel re-use tent cards are placed in all guest bathrooms. The feasibility of recycling laundry rinse waters is being studied.

Key card master switch
Hotel Nikko Hongkong estimated that approximately a third of its guests forgot to turn off the master switch controlling electrical units when leaving the room. The hotel installed a key card-controlled master switch to replace the button, which automatically ensures all electrical units are off when rooms are vacant.

Economic and environmental benefits:
Hotel Nikko Hongkong estimates that the key card system brings a saving of HK$2,36 (US$0.30) per day per room. Switches cost HK$165 (US$ 21) per unit. The payback period is 70 days.

Maintaining indoor temperatures
Daily thermometre readings ensure that indoor temperatures are maintained at 20°C degrees in summer and at 21-22°C in winter.

Reducing boiler operating hours and water temperatures
The hot water boilers are switched-off between 01 h00 and 05h00. Water temperature has been reduced from 60°C to 55°C - hot enough for personal use and to prevent legionella growth.

Economic and environmental benefits:
In 1995, these measures combined brought Hotel Nikko Hongkong a 6% reduction in electricity costs, and over a 9% reduction in fuel oil costs which translated into savings of about $512,000 (US$66,000).

Readjustment of gas equipment
The hotel has installed control technologies that maintain the correct ratio of gas and air in the kitchen stoves. The hotel works with the Hong Kong & China Gas Company to ensure that all gas equipment is adjusted in accordance with the Company's specifications.

Economic and environmental benefits:
Gas consumption is reduced by 11 % and associated costs are reduced by 6% each year.

A 30 item checklist has been drawn up to ensure that the property is not only a "green" hotel, but also a "safe hotel". In addition:
• A booklet entitled "For your safety" is put in all guest rooms.
• A "Safety and Emergency" paragraph is included in the employee handbook. Regular staff safety drills, fire emergency exercises, hygiene and first aid training are conducted.
• A safety video is regularly screened for staff. The Urban Council's leaflets on sanitation and hygiene are distributed to all staff.
• Swimming pool water is regularly analyzed by an independent laboratory.
• Additional loud speakers have been installed in guest rooms for emergency announcements.

An extensive r)roaramme to monitor enerqy and water use, as well as indoor air
being used to build a database history to enable the hotel to prioritize future activities. Monitoring is performed by students of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University with assistance from the hotel maintenance and engineering staff.

Collaboration with the Hong Kong Polytechnic University
The environment programme of the hotel is used as a practical study programme for final year students of the Department of Building Services at Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The partnership began in 1992, when the students performed an audit on Hotel Nikko Hongkong's water and energy consumption efficiency and on indoor air quality.

In 1995/6, three student research projects were completed:
• Performance evaluation of the direct sea water-cooled chiller plant • Water use audit following the water conservation retrofit
• An investigation of the possibility of energy recovery from exhaust air at roof level and condensed heat from the chiller plant

The Nikko Hongkong Environmental Prize
In 1996, Hotel Nikko Hongkong created an annual Environmental Prize to be awarded to a student from the Department of Building Services at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University who had demonstrated outstanding performance in the final year environmental project. It comprises a certificate, trophy and a scholarship of HK$5,000 (US$ 650).

A "Guide to Energy and Water Conservation in Hotels"
Hotel Nikko Hongkong and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University have published "A Guide to Energy and Water Conservation in Hotels", a practical guide for managers and engineering staff based on the experience gained from auditing hotels in Hong Kong.

Networking and sponsorship
The hotel's general manager frequently makes presentations on environmental management in 'hotels at national and international workshops and conferences. Hotel Nikko Hongkong is a sponsor of the Hong Kong Annual Business and Industry Environment Conference. The hotel also participates in tree-planting efforts and fund-raising activities for environmental charities.

Visitor communication
The environmental awards won by Hotel Nikko Hongkong are displayed in the reception area and are listed on hotel stationery, brochures and other promotional materials.

All staff are trained to apply good housekeeping measures during their daily tasks: turning off equipment when not in use, closing curtains in unoccupied bedrooms to reduce heat transfer, using equipment (especially washing machines) according to manufacturers specifications, and reporting leaks and other defects.

Special training is given to engineering and maintenance staff who are actively
Involved in iomproving the operating efficiency of all equipment.

Copies of "Guidelines for Energy Efficiency" produced by the Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee of the Government of Hong Kong are distributed to all staff.

"First it is important to ensure that you get the support of your staff, most specifically your engineering staff and that they are aware of the usefulness of environmental action plans. The second step is to ensure that the technical specifications of equipment installed in a building are followed... In my experience most companies can cut energy consumption by 10% just by taking a few simple measures."

Jean Marie Leclercq
General Manager

Budapest Hilton, Hungary
Budapest Hotels Collective Waste Management Programme

The Budapest Hilton has 322 guest rooms, 3 restaurants, 2 bars, a wine cellar, a ballroom, 7 meeting rooms and a business/meeting centre. It accommodates over 100,000 guests annually. Located in the historic Castle district of Budapest, it incorporates the remains of a Dominican church and cloister from the 13th century, classified by UNESCO's World Heritage programme.

Washing machines and dishwashers operate on low water cycles. Low flush toilets have been used in the newly restored bathrooms. Guests can choose to re-use towels or have them changed daily, which reduces water and laundry detergent use, and effluent.

The use of energy-saving light bulbs has reduced the energy bill by 13%, or US$ 40,000 per year

Waste separation and recycling programme
Waste paper including stationery, office paper used on both sides and newspapers, metels can and white and coloured glasses are collected, separated and sold for recycling. A waste compactor which reduces waste volumes by 50% was purchased at a cost of US$ 10,000.

Economic and environmental benefits:
In 1994 and 1995, through recycling initiatives and compacting non-recyclable waste, the Budapest Hilton's overall waste volumes were reduced by more than 30%. Waste collection fees were reduced by US$ 10,000 in 1995. The return on investment of the waste compactor was one year.

Detergents and cleaning liquids are biodegradable and are bought in bulk to reduce packaging waste. Ink ribbons and cartridges are reusable and recyclable.

The Budapest Hilton's general manger has organised several environmental training workshops for members of the Hotel Association of Hungary. He has also published a booklet entitled "The Green Road to Tourism".

Visitor communication
Tent cards on the wise use of energy and on reducing water use are placed in all guest rooms. "Thoughts About Our Future", the Budapest Hilton's environment brochure, describes the Hilton's environment programme and gives ideas on how guests can participate.

When the Budapest Hilton was awarded the Environmental Prize of the Hotel Association of Hungary, the prize money was distributed amongst line employees who demonstrated a strong environmental commitment.


 Building upon the above environment programme, particularly its waste separation andecycling activities, the Budapest Hilton together with the Budapest Marriott, initiated a collective waste management effort for the members of the Hungarian Hotel Association.

 When it started in 1994, recycling in Hungary was still small scale and expensive. Twelve hotels in Budapest started by recycling office paper, then newspapers and cardboard. Later, glass bottles were separated by colour and collected for recycling. The glass recycling programme was a big challenge as initially the collection companies often failed to collect on schedule or not at all. Furthermore, there was no guarantee that the glass would be recycled after collection and many collectors were not equipped with trucks to handle large quantities. A reliable firm was finally found which would collect and recycle glass waste free of charge.

 Each hotel participating in the collective waste management effort has invested US$10,000 in a waste compactor which reduces waste volumes by 50%.
 Plans are underway to extend this programme to other types of wastes and to members of the National Hotel Association throughout the country.

Economic & environmental benefits:
Apart from the proper disposal of waste, this effort helps to overcome problems pertaining to limited storage space in hotels. Savings are made on waste collection fees as the trucks collect waste from several hotels in one round. l-he programme is reported to save the participating hotels collectively around US$70,000 per annum.

"We could introduce many things at once, but soon we'd find that the excitement would go and people would lose interest. We don't want that. We are in this for good, in the long run. "

Mr Attila Zobor
Resident Manager



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