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Environmentally Good Practices in Hotels and Restaurants

Kingfisher Bay Resort & Village
Fraser Island, Australia

Kingfisher Bay Resort & Village is located on the west coast of UNESCO's World Heritage-listed Fraser Island, 250km north of Brisbane. The site encompasses 65ha and includes a 152-roomed hotel, 75 self-contained villas, a 114-bed Wilderness Lodge, a day-visitor pavilion, the staff village, 3 restaurants and conference rooms for up to 300 people.

Kingfisher Bay was built to strict environmental guidelines with the aim of offering a modern resort to blend harmoniously with the island's sensitive ecosystem. Before construction began, extensive environmental impact assessments were performed. Additional research was undertaken to examine certain areas in more detail: topography vegetation and fauna surveys, an hydology survey and studies of previous aboriginal use and habitation of the site. Findings of these studies gave rise to several management challenges and further advice was obtained to ensure that construction and operation of the resort would be carried out with minimum disturbance to the ecosystem. Kingfisher Bay estimates that over 57 person years of research, planning and design Went into the project.

High level of environmental integration
From the outset, every effort was made to minimize environmental impact and achieve a high level of environmental integration:

• Roads and buildings are planned around the major trees to the greatest extent possible.
• All buildings are designed to harmonize with the environment using Queensland-style architecture made of wood with open verandas and curving tin roofs to reflect the sand dunes. Colours reflect the surrounding bush vegetation.
• Buildings are limited to 2 levels, and are below the tree line. • All timber used is from indigenous species
• The hotel centre complex (conference rooms, reception, lounge rooms, restaurants, administration offices and toilets) is designed without air¬conditioning. Natural convection currents are created by windows and vents at the upper and lower levels of the building. In summer, cool air is drawn into the building throughout the day while hot air escapes through the large ceiling vents. In winter, vents are closed to trap warm air resulting in a "glass house" effect.
• All rooms and public areas have enough natural light during daylight hours to eliminate the need for artificial lighting on fine days. Insulation has been maximized in all rooms.
• All public areas, conference rooms, bedrooms and offices are non-smoking. Smoker bedrooms are available on request.
• Impacts on the dunes and swamps are minimized through the use of either hardwood boardwalks or wood chip walking tracks.
• The resort has an on-site sewage treatment plant.

Economic & environmental benefits:
The design of the resort is estimated to save over 500,000kwh of energy each year, which is equivalent to the energy consumption of 100 households.

Minimizing Environmental Impact
The introduction of mainland soil diseases was prevented by using landfill obtained from the Kingfisher Bay site itself or from approved mainland sources. Natural materials removed from the site were mulched and used for landscaping.

Native plants from the site and surrounding area were used for landscaping. I
Thousands of plants were removed prior to construction and held in an on-site
nursery for replanting later. A further 150,000 native plants were raised from seeds and cuttings. The on-site nursery continues to provide for all the resort's landscaping needs.

Run-off from roads and roofs is diverted into large lakes within the resort area to reduce scouring, creating natural-looking peat lakes which attract a diverse range of wildlife.

Waste water treated through the biotechnological plant is not used for irrigation as the nutrient requirement levels of the soil and vegetation on Fraser Island are very low Treated water is released into the fast-moving channel in the Great Sandy Strait.

A key card is required to power each room. This ensures that all energy is turned off when the room is vacant. Air-conditioning units have to be switched on manually.

All waste generated by the resort is separated, compacted, stored on site and sent to the mainland for recycling. Glass waste is crushed before being sent for recycling.

Kingfisher Bay has set-up a community consultative committee to ensure the resort maintains good communication links with various interest groups in the community. Conservation, Aboriginal, and resident groups are represented on this committee.

Kingfisher Bay actively encourages research programmes relevant to the Fraser Island ecosystem and to ecotourism. These include:
• Mammal research on the behaviour of small native marsupials,
• Kingfisher Bay's parent company, Queensland Tourism Industries Ltd, offers 5 grants each year to postgraduate students doing Ecotourism research.

Within the framework of the resort's environmental interpretation programme, several educational initiatives are in operation to increase the environmental awareness and sensitivity of visitors. They include:
• Fraser Wild Nature Programme, courses hosted by specialists to give guests an opportunity to further their knowledge.
• Environmental Education Programme for Schools, conducted with practical interaction with the resort's rangers.

Staff induction programmes include an environmental good conduct video.

Visitor communication
A 4 stage programme is in place - promotion, orientation, involvement and reinforcement. Within this framework several interpretation programmes, self¬guide tours, displays, publications and videos are available to guests. The interpretation programmes include guided walks, four-wheel drive tours, marine tours and "meet the ranger" activities. Kingfisher Bay employs 13 full-time rangers on these programmes.

"Kingfisher Bay has sought to integrate planning, design, landscapes, interpretative programmes, and tourism to truly represent the World Heritage values of Fraser Island. This integration is our major attraction. Fraser Island is the focus of our guest's holiday and Kingfisher Bay is the facilitator."

Tony Charters
Director, Environmental Management

Neptune Hotel
Copenhagen, Denmark

The Neptune Hotel has 133 rooms including 16 executive units and 5 conference rooms for up to 70 persons. It is located in the Frederiksstaden quarter of Copenhagen, close to the Amalienborg Palace, the harbour promenade and the main shopping area. It belongs to the Neptune Group which also operates the Hotel Esplanaden, and the Gendarmen Cafe/Restaurant. The Hotel is a recipient of the "Green Key" - a Danish environmental certificate awarded to hotels that pay special attention to environment and health.

"Nordic Light Style"
At the end of 1995, 11 suites were refurbished in the "Nordic Light Style" a new concept in decor and furnishing conceived by the Neptune's proprietor and administrative director. Based on late 18th century Scandinavian interior design concepts, it incorporates environmental considerations in all elements of decor and furnishing. The selection of textiles, furnishings, bedding, paints and lacquers is made according to evidence that environmental impact has been mitigated throughout the production process. All guest amenities are made from natural products, or products made from recycled material.

Rooms are non-smoking and specially designed for visitors suffering from allergies and other environmental illnesses. (They have been approved under the guidelines of the Danish Asthma Association).

All taps and toilets are equipped with water saving devices.

The "energy saver" key card
The hotel has had an "energy saver" key card system since 1994, when it was used by the electrical conglomerate Thorn EMI to pilot their new system. The key card operates on a relay system. On entering the room the guest inserts the key card into a card holder which turns on all electrical outlets and lights in the room. Once the card is removed, all electrical outlets, except the minibar are turned off in 30 seconds.

Individually controlled air conditioning
All individual air conditioning units in guest rooms are computer controlled and are set at a. standard temperature. Guests can turn the unit on and off, but they must contact reception to regulate the temperature.

Guest rooms are supplied with two waste baskets, one for burnable items and one for non burnable items such as plastic containers and empty aerosol cans.cartridges in printers are returned to the suppliers for refilling.
Purchasinguppliers are asked to provide specifications to guarantee the environmental sensitivity and quality of their products. All paper products have to be recycled.


Training is given to all staff to incorporate environmental housekeeping practices in their daily routines.

Visitor communication
The environmental action plan is displayed at reception. An information folder on the energy saving key card is given to guests when checking-in. Through the guest questionnaire "Who Cares", Neptune receives comments on its environmental programme.

Economic & environmental benefits:
Neptune Hotel is convinced that its environmental work has played an important role in enhancing its corporate image and increasing occupancy over the last few years. The response of travel agencies and tour operators has also been encouraging.

"We combine cost saving with environmental protection. When people think of environmental measures, they often associate them with austerity or ultra simplicity. It is our intention to prove the contrary and to demonstrate that we can live in comfort while taking care of the environment."

Mrs Bente Noyons
Owner and Administrative Director

Hotel Nikko Hongkong
lHA Corporate Green Hotelier of the Year 1995

The 17-floor Hotel Nikko Hongkong, is situated on the waterfront of the Victoria Harbour next to the shopping area of Kowloon. Included in its 462 rooms are 19 suites. The ballroom can hold receptions for up to 460, and four additional function rooms with seating capacity for 55 to 230 people. The hotel has four restaurants and two bars. It also operates a business centre, swimming pool, health club and a shopping arcade.

Reducing water consumption
After experimenting with devices such as plastic flow restricters, Hotel Nikko installed a calibrated water control system, the "Platypus System", in June 1995. The core element of this system is a compact valve which is inserted into the hydraulic system to control the flow and temperature balance of each tap or shower. The correct type and size of valve is chosen for each tap or shower, depending on factors such as required water temperature, pressure and flow rate. The advantages of this system are:
• Water flow is constant, flow fluctuations from each tap or shower are eliminated
• Changes in water temperature are eliminated
• Water hammer, velocity noise and splashing when taps are turned on, are substantially reduced
• Filters improve the quality of the water delivered to guests.

Economic and environmental benefits:
The water control system was installed in June 1995. Between July 1995 arid June 1996, despite an average occupancy increase of 4% over the previous year, water consumption per guest decreased by an average of 13%, equating to HK$ 13,000 (US$ 1,688) saved per month. (Note: This figure could be as high as 30% as it does not include water consumption for laundry)

Since the installation of the water control system, consurnpticmi of hot water has fallen and correspondingly, the use of fuel for the hot water boilers has decreased by an average of 4% or 2,000 litres per month. This amounts to savings of approximately HK$5,600 (US$724) in fuel costs.

Taking into account the energy saved, the payback period is estimated to be 30 months. However, if the savings on the Trade Effluent Discharge (imposed in April 1995) and the Sewerage Discharge fees were included, the payback period would be considerably shorter.

Reducing the use of fresh water
The chiller plant operates on a sea water cooling system, which eliminates the use of scarce fresh water. Towel re-use tent cards are placed in all guest bathrooms. The feasibility of recycling laundry rinse waters is being studied.

Key card master switch
Hotel Nikko Hongkong estimated that approximately a third of its guests forgot to turn off the master switch controlling electrical units when leaving the room. The hotel installed a key card-controlled master switch to replace the button, which automatically ensures all electrical units are off when rooms are vacant.

Economic and environmental benefits:
Hotel Nikko Hongkong estimates that the key card system brings a saving of HK$2,36 (US$0.30) per day per room. Switches cost HK$165 (US$ 21) per unit. The payback period is 70 days.

Maintaining indoor temperatures
Daily thermometre readings ensure that indoor temperatures are maintained at 20°C degrees in summer and at 21-22°C in winter.

Reducing boiler operating hours and water temperatures
The hot water boilers are switched-off between 01 h00 and 05h00. Water temperature has been reduced from 60°C to 55°C - hot enough for personal use and to prevent legionella growth.

Economic and environmental benefits:
In 1995, these measures combined brought Hotel Nikko Hongkong a 6% reduction in electricity costs, and over a 9% reduction in fuel oil costs which translated into savings of about $512,000 (US$66,000).

Readjustment of gas equipment
The hotel has installed control technologies that maintain the correct ratio of gas and air in the kitchen stoves. The hotel works with the Hong Kong & China Gas Company to ensure that all gas equipment is adjusted in accordance with the Company's specifications.

Economic and environmental benefits:
Gas consumption is reduced by 11 % and associated costs are reduced by 6% each year.

A 30 item checklist has been drawn up to ensure that the property is not only a "green" hotel, but also a "safe hotel". In addition:
• A booklet entitled "For your safety" is put in all guest rooms.
• A "Safety and Emergency" paragraph is included in the employee handbook. Regular staff safety drills, fire emergency exercises, hygiene and first aid training are conducted.
• A safety video is regularly screened for staff. The Urban Council's leaflets on sanitation and hygiene are distributed to all staff.
• Swimming pool water is regularly analyzed by an independent laboratory.
• Additional loud speakers have been installed in guest rooms for emergency announcements.

An extensive r)roaramme to monitor enerqy and water use, as well as indoor air
being used to build a database history to enable the hotel to prioritize future activities. Monitoring is performed by students of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University with assistance from the hotel maintenance and engineering staff.

Collaboration with the Hong Kong Polytechnic University
The environment programme of the hotel is used as a practical study programme for final year students of the Department of Building Services at Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The partnership began in 1992, when the students performed an audit on Hotel Nikko Hongkong's water and energy consumption efficiency and on indoor air quality.

In 1995/6, three student research projects were completed:
• Performance evaluation of the direct sea water-cooled chiller plant • Water use audit following the water conservation retrofit
• An investigation of the possibility of energy recovery from exhaust air at roof level and condensed heat from the chiller plant

The Nikko Hongkong Environmental Prize
In 1996, Hotel Nikko Hongkong created an annual Environmental Prize to be awarded to a student from the Department of Building Services at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University who had demonstrated outstanding performance in the final year environmental project. It comprises a certificate, trophy and a scholarship of HK$5,000 (US$ 650).

A "Guide to Energy and Water Conservation in Hotels"
Hotel Nikko Hongkong and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University have published "A Guide to Energy and Water Conservation in Hotels", a practical guide for managers and engineering staff based on the experience gained from auditing hotels in Hong Kong.

Networking and sponsorship
The hotel's general manager frequently makes presentations on environmental management in 'hotels at national and international workshops and conferences. Hotel Nikko Hongkong is a sponsor of the Hong Kong Annual Business and Industry Environment Conference. The hotel also participates in tree-planting efforts and fund-raising activities for environmental charities.

Visitor communication
The environmental awards won by Hotel Nikko Hongkong are displayed in the reception area and are listed on hotel stationery, brochures and other promotional materials.

All staff are trained to apply good housekeeping measures during their daily tasks: turning off equipment when not in use, closing curtains in unoccupied bedrooms to reduce heat transfer, using equipment (especially washing machines) according to manufacturers specifications, and reporting leaks and other defects.

Special training is given to engineering and maintenance staff who are actively
Involved in iomproving the operating efficiency of all equipment.

Copies of "Guidelines for Energy Efficiency" produced by the Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee of the Government of Hong Kong are distributed to all staff.

"First it is important to ensure that you get the support of your staff, most specifically your engineering staff and that they are aware of the usefulness of environmental action plans. The second step is to ensure that the technical specifications of equipment installed in a building are followed... In my experience most companies can cut energy consumption by 10% just by taking a few simple measures."

Jean Marie Leclercq
General Manager

Budapest Hilton, Hungary
Budapest Hotels Collective Waste Management Programme

The Budapest Hilton has 322 guest rooms, 3 restaurants, 2 bars, a wine cellar, a ballroom, 7 meeting rooms and a business/meeting centre. It accommodates over 100,000 guests annually. Located in the historic Castle district of Budapest, it incorporates the remains of a Dominican church and cloister from the 13th century, classified by UNESCO's World Heritage programme.

Washing machines and dishwashers operate on low water cycles. Low flush toilets have been used in the newly restored bathrooms. Guests can choose to re-use towels or have them changed daily, which reduces water and laundry detergent use, and effluent.

The use of energy-saving light bulbs has reduced the energy bill by 13%, or US$ 40,000 per year

Waste separation and recycling programme
Waste paper including stationery, office paper used on both sides and newspapers, metels can and white and coloured glasses are collected, separated and sold for recycling. A waste compactor which reduces waste volumes by 50% was purchased at a cost of US$ 10,000.

Economic and environmental benefits:
In 1994 and 1995, through recycling initiatives and compacting non-recyclable waste, the Budapest Hilton's overall waste volumes were reduced by more than 30%. Waste collection fees were reduced by US$ 10,000 in 1995. The return on investment of the waste compactor was one year.

Detergents and cleaning liquids are biodegradable and are bought in bulk to reduce packaging waste. Ink ribbons and cartridges are reusable and recyclable.

The Budapest Hilton's general manger has organised several environmental training workshops for members of the Hotel Association of Hungary. He has also published a booklet entitled "The Green Road to Tourism".

Visitor communication
Tent cards on the wise use of energy and on reducing water use are placed in all guest rooms. "Thoughts About Our Future", the Budapest Hilton's environment brochure, describes the Hilton's environment programme and gives ideas on how guests can participate.

When the Budapest Hilton was awarded the Environmental Prize of the Hotel Association of Hungary, the prize money was distributed amongst line employees who demonstrated a strong environmental commitment.


 Building upon the above environment programme, particularly its waste separation andecycling activities, the Budapest Hilton together with the Budapest Marriott, initiated a collective waste management effort for the members of the Hungarian Hotel Association.

 When it started in 1994, recycling in Hungary was still small scale and expensive. Twelve hotels in Budapest started by recycling office paper, then newspapers and cardboard. Later, glass bottles were separated by colour and collected for recycling. The glass recycling programme was a big challenge as initially the collection companies often failed to collect on schedule or not at all. Furthermore, there was no guarantee that the glass would be recycled after collection and many collectors were not equipped with trucks to handle large quantities. A reliable firm was finally found which would collect and recycle glass waste free of charge.

 Each hotel participating in the collective waste management effort has invested US$10,000 in a waste compactor which reduces waste volumes by 50%.
 Plans are underway to extend this programme to other types of wastes and to members of the National Hotel Association throughout the country.

Economic & environmental benefits:
Apart from the proper disposal of waste, this effort helps to overcome problems pertaining to limited storage space in hotels. Savings are made on waste collection fees as the trucks collect waste from several hotels in one round. l-he programme is reported to save the participating hotels collectively around US$70,000 per annum.

"We could introduce many things at once, but soon we'd find that the excitement would go and people would lose interest. We don't want that. We are in this for good, in the long run. "

Mr Attila Zobor
Resident Manager

Environmentally Good Practices in Hotels and Restaurants

Hotel Guestline Days
Tirupati, India

Hotel Guestline Days, Tirupati, is owned and managed by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., in affiliation with Days Inn Inc., USA. It has 141 rooms, two restaurants, a health club, a conference room and a business centre.

Tirupati lies at the foot of the Tirumala hills in Chittar District, Andhra Pradesh. It is the home of the Sri Venkateswhara Temple and Vaishnovite Shrine, which receive an average of 30,000 visitors a day, bringing the hotel clients all year round.

Corporate environmental commitment is part of the mission statement of Guestline Days: "To construct and manage our properties in a manner that preserves and enhances the environment and serves the public interest".

 The hotel is designed in a Y shape to optimize the use of natural light.
 The ceiling on the top floor is lined with a 75mm thick layer of expanded polystyrene which acts an heat insulator, keeps the indoor temperature at a lower level and brings down air-conditioning costs.
 Showers are installed instead of baths.
 Instead of traditional hardwoods such as teak and mahogany (protected species), treated rubber wood has been used for guest room furniture.
 Reed curtains are used in areas where complete privacy is not needed.

Collection and use of rain water especially during the monsoons
Rain water is collected and used for many purposes. In an untreated form it is used for toilet flushing. Water which has been filtered, chlorinated and passed through an ultra-violet filter is used for cooking and drinking.

Reducing water use
A hydro-pneumatic ring system has been introduced to regulate flushing water which operates through control valves in each WC.

Economic & environmental benefits:
The quantity of water per flush has been reduced from 12 to 8 litres. 365,000 litres of water is saved each year which equates to Rs. 1,369 (US$ 39).

Waste water treatment and recycling
All waste water, from flushing and bathing and from the kitchen and laundry is collected in grit chambers where grease is separated. The heavy particles which sink to the bottom of the chamber are removed at regular intervals. The water then flows to an aeration tank where bleaching powder, ferric chloride and copper sulphate are added. It then passes throuqh a multi-layer filter before it is stored and used in the hotel gardens and fountains. Excess grey water is used on local agriculture land.

Economic and environmental benefits:
150,000 litres of water are recycled per day, which equates to Rs. 152 per day and Rs.55,480 (US$ 1,585) per year in water costs.

Guest room master switch
All guest rooms have a master switch which guests are requested to turn off when leaving.

Hot water recovery
Condensation from the air conditioning unit and the laundry and health club is fed back into the main boiler. As this water is already heated, the boiler operates at lower capacity and consumes less fuel.

Sun control films
Sun control films have been added to all windows in public areas with direct sunlight, reducing air conditioning load and related costs. Energy saving light bulbs are complemented with dimmers in all public areas.

Economic & environmental benefits:
The hotel estimates that these measures collectively save about 2,815 kw per year which equates to Rs. 84,315 (US$ 2,409).

Biodegradable disposable items
Plastic plates and cups have been replaced by disposable containers made with biodegradable leaf and plant sheaths.

All wet garbage (mainly food waste from the kitchen) is composted and used as fertilizer. Excess compost is sold to local farmers, some of whom supply the hotel with fruits and vegetables. Revenue from this practice is estimated at Rs.1,369 (US$ 39) per month.

Recycling and reuse
 Air-conditioning units use reusable filters.
 Stationery and promotional materials use recycled paper. Old envelopes are reused for internal correspondence.
 Leftover juices and wines are used to make vinegar which is used as a cleaning agent.
 Wooden crates, used for packaging when the hotel was built in 1991, were reused to build barriers around saplings planted along the road.leading to the hotel.
 Newspapers, bottles, crates and cans that are not taken away by suppliers are sold to scrap dealers for recycling, which generates Rs. 1,500 (US$ 43) per month.
 Old linen is converted into cleaning cloths.

Guestline Days makes a conscious effort to use suppliers who buy back their packing for reuse and recycling. Preference is given to local products. Efforts are made to reduce items that require long-distance transportation which causes pollution. All wine and spirits served are made in India.

Reduction of boiler emissions
The boiler is serviced and maintained to ensure that carbon dioxide emissions are below 3.5% and oxygen is above 13%.

The air-conditioning unit uses lithium bromide as a refrigerant, a more environmentally friendly alternative to chlorofloro carbon (CFC) which causes ozone depletion.

Fire extinguishes
Traditional halon fire extinguishers have been replaced with halon 1211, a more environmentally friendly alternative.

On-going environmental initiatives among staff include an awareness programme on vehicle emissions which has encouraged the staff to car-pool and use bicycles. Guests can also hire bicycles from the hotel.
Visitor communication
"Water shame" notices in all guest rooms remind guests: "The way some people waste water! They wouldn't if they knew a few water facts. Brushing teeth with an open tap uses 33 litres, a closed tap uses 1 litre. A shower bath uses 100 litres of water, a bucket bath uses 18 litres."

A letter inviting guests to "Save the Planet" is included in the general information pack in all rooms. It outliries the Guestline Days environment policy and asks guests to cooperate through actions such as using less water and turning-off the power supply master switch when leaving the room. Visitors have commended the hotel for its environmental efforts through the guest questionnaire.

"Everyday we consciously or unconsciously do something that darnages the Earth's environment. It is our endeavour to be conscious of safeguarding our environment in all that we do and at all levels, for we believe that safeguarding our environment is safeguarding ourselves and future generations. "

Mr A. S. Ranganathan
General Manager

Welcomgroup Maurya Sheraton Hotel
and Towers
New Delhi, India

The Welcomgroup Maurya Sheraton Hotel and Towers in New Delhi operates 440 guest rooms, 7 restaurants and 8 conference rooms. "Welcomenviron" is the name of the environmental awareness programme implemented in Wecomgroup (non-hospitality) subsidiaries and serves as the basis of the hotel's environmental programme.

The "Welcomenviron" Policy and Procedure Manual serves as a working document for developing the hotel's environmental action programme. In order to facilitate implementation and monitoring, the manual includes an environmental management "road map", life cycle analysis flow charts and monitoring checklists for all action areas, ie:

Operations and facilities management:
Emissions, noise, dust, effluent, solid waste, hazardous materials, machinery specifications, energy, transport, ozone layer depleting chemicals, legionnella prevention, discontinuing use of asbestos.

Product services: Packaging materials, product specifications, supplier performance using recycled materials.

Environmental awareness: Awareness and training, environmental committee, publicity, library

Communications: Corporate image and public relations, internal communications

Information systems: Environmental management records and environmental legislation register.

Waste Water treatment
Laundry and waste water are recycled through an effluent treatment plant installed on the hotel premises. Laundry waste water is first dosed with chemicals to bring down the alkaline level and then passed through an aerator to reduce the biological oxygen demand (BOD) loads. Suspended solids are then removed through lamallea separators, and residual suspended matter, detergents and sludge are removed through dual media filters (DMF). At this stage all organic matter has been removed from the water, BOD levels are lowered and colour and odours have been eliminated. A low chlorine dose is added to kill any residual bacteria.

Kitchen waste water is treated by a similar process, having first passed through a crusher and filter to reduce larger particles of food waste. All treated water is used in the hotel fountains and for landscaping. It also feeds into an aquarium which indicates the level to which the water has been purified. The backwaters used for washing the filters and softeners in the water treatment plant are also collected and used for landscaping.

Economic and environmental benefits:
The hotel estimates that 200,000 litres of water are recycled per day. The backwaters that are collected and used for landscaping amount to 30,000 litres per day.

The hygiene kiosk to reduce water consumption
A special apparatus for the cleaning of hands in the kitchen uses ultrasonic technology. Water molecules vibrating at 40,000 cycles per second penetrates and removes the dirt particles embedded in the pores of the hand. The use of soap and water is greatly reduced.

Auto flush
Minimum water is used in public area urinals through an auto-flush system activated by infra-red sensors.

Economic and environmental benefits:
Water use has been reduced by 1,060 litres per year.

Recycling of cooking oil
Used cooking oil from the kitchen is passed through an oil recyceer, then re¬used for cooking. After the second use, the oil is collected in a common slump and sent to a Welcomegroup unit microbiological laboratory for the manufacture of soap.

Good housekeeping measures
• Paper laundry bags have been replaced by reusable cloth bags.
• Table mats are made of biodegradable fibres.

Motion detectors and photocells
Motion detectors have been fitted in guest rooms so that when empty, all electrical circuits are automatically switched off. Photocells have been used to turn on and off outdoor lighting. Timing devices have been fitted to corridor lights.

Lowering wattage
60 watt incandescent lamps have been replaced by 9 florescent watt lamps.

Energy maintenance
A comprehensive maintenance and energy management programme ensures the optimum loading of transformers, and an optimum defrosting system for cold storage and deep freezers. Kitchen exhaust fans are fitted with timers.

Ozonizer in guest bedrooms
Ozonizers are installed in guest rooms to improve indoor air quality. These devices break down the oxygen to produce nascent oxygen which removes odours and purifies the air.

The flue gas from the boiler is passed through wet scrubbers which contain a sodium hydroxide solution. The solution absorbs the carbon monoxide in the flue gas and minimizes pollution. The central air conditioning unit operates on CFC-free chillers.

Visitor communication
A permanent environmental exhibition is maintained in the lobby which displays information on sustainable resource use and the "Welcomenviron" programme. An environmental information channel is included on the in-house television service.

The "Welcomenviron - We Can Do It" booklet is made available to encourage guests to "do their bit" and lists a range of eco-tips for local guests:
• Use bio-gas when living in satellite cities and rural surroundings
• Re-sell paper to recycling agencies
• Use leaf plates for picnics instead of plastic containers
• Collect rain water for various uses
• Use water from washing food and defrosting the fridge for watering plants

The booklet discusses current environmental problems such as the "green house" effect, the increase of land-fill sites, forest conservation and industrial pollution- related health issues.

In an effort to increase environmental awareness among guests, an attractive telephone index of unbleached recycled paper is offered to guests. It includes information on Indian natural history, literary quotations, nature paintings and facts and figures such as: 17 trees are used to make 1 ton of paper; every newspaper uses 1 tree per month for its paper requirements; every year a 100,000 trees are felled for making wooden crates.

"Welcomenviron" is coordinated by an environmental team with representatives from all departments, headed by the General Manager. A quarterly environmental award scheme has been organized to reward departments showing a strong commitment. All job appraisals contain a section on participation in "Welcomenviron".

"We are firmly committed to achieving best international practice and standards in all environmental issues. Our future plans include waste heat recovery from the central air conditioning unit and using bio gas as a fuel for cooking. We are also in the process of making inventories and system flow charts to perform a life cycle analysis of all products that we use. "

Former General Manager

Hotel Inter-Continental
Nairobi, Kenya

The Inter-Continental has 440 guest rooms, 4 restaurants, a casino, and a ballroom which seats over 500 persons. It is located opposite Uhuru Park, a ten minute walk from Nairobi city centre.

Reusing the condenser from the discarded liquid chillers to install a flash steam heat exchange unit because flash steam was escaping from the boiler due to excess steam in the laundry condenser, the cost of installing a flash steam heat exchange unit to use this otherwise wasted energy for water heating was investigated. However, as the hotel's 20 year old liquid water chillers were being replaced, it was decided to remove the condenser from the discarded chillers and reuse it for the heat exchange unit in order to make substantial costs savings.

Water now enters the heat exchanger at 25°C where it is heated to 38°C. It is then pumped into the central water heater where it needs to be heated only another 12°C to reach 50°C. (Previously, water was heated directly in the heater from 25°C to 50°C). The boiler now operates at 50% capacity, and uses less energy.

Environmental & economic benefits:
By saving on the cost of a new heat exchanger (US$ 40,000) and using the heat exchanger recovered from the water chillers, the only cost incurred was US$2,000 for installation and modifications. Fuel consumption has been reduced by 24,000 gallons (90,909 litres), which amounts to US$ 34,000 per annum. Carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide emissions have also been reduced.

Twin speed motors in the air conditioning cooling towers
The cooling towers of the water-chilled air-conditioning system have been replaced by ones which operate on two-speed motors and fans. The temperature of the water entering the cooling towers is gauged automatically so when cooling demand falls and the water temperature is low, the motor operates at a lower speed. An automatic water treatment device to remove limestone and legionella bacteria has also been fitted.

Environmental & economic benefits:
As the motors frequently operate at a lower speed, approximately 8000 kwh of energy are saved per month. This equates to a reduction of US$ 8,400 in energy costs per annum. The noise level of the towers have been reduced by 60%.

Power factor correction
The hotel was registering significant losses in voltage due to the high reactive power content when receiving power from the national grid. A capacitor bank was installed which improved the incoming power factor from 0.8 to 0.99, which brought major savings on electricity costs, through reduced surcharges.

Environmental and Economic benefits:
The capacitor bank was purchased for US$28,500. Through the increased power factor, energy savings total US $1 700 per month, or US $ 20,400 per annum. The return on investment is 18 months. The capacitor bank does not use - polychlorinated-biphenyl, a toxic liquid that cannot be properly disposed of at the end of its service life.

Replacement of CFC 12 liquid chillers
Like most traditional refrigeration and freezers, the Inter-Continental Nairobi's liquid chillers were operating on R12 which contains chlorofloro carbons (CFCs) - an ozone depleting substance. These chillers have now been replaced with more ozone friendly R-134a (HFC-134a) chillers. The cost of this replacement was US$ 200,000.

Environmental information booklets
The Regional Chief Engineer has complied two environmental information booklets, designed for non-engineers on "Energy Conservation and Awareness and Environmental Auditing" and "Environmental Management for Small and Medium Sized Hotels in Developing Countries." He observed that while most hoteliers recognize the importance of environmental management, many fail to take action not only due the lack of capital, but also due to their lack of technical knowledge. The booklets were developed to improve hoteliers' understanding of environmental issues and provide practical suggestions on simple, low-cost measures to improve environmental performance. They were disseminated to over 50 small and medium sized hotels and to other Inter¬Continental Hotels in Kenya and Africa in place of a traditional Christmas card.

Economic & environmental benefits:
The response has been very positive. Several hotels, including 8 Inter¬Continental hotels in Africa have now implemented environmental management programmes.

Visitor communication
"The Green Plant" newsletter carries information on general environmental issues as well as on the hotels environment programme.

A task force of representatives from all departments oversees the implementation of the environmental programme. An environmental award is organized, and the winners are announced and rewarded at the annual staff party which is attended by the Minister of Tourism.

"Governments in Africa are faced with mounting socio-economic problems which are further compounded by the lack of capital to make improvements. Instead of waiting for government assistance, we, as private sector international industry leaders, have a leading role to play in raising environmental awareness and encouraging environmental action in local industry. "

Mr Varuna Fernando
Regional Chief Engineer, Inter Continental Hotels, (East Africa)

Narayani Safari Hotel and Lodge

The 37-room Narayani Safari Hotel was built in 1987 and the Narayani Safari Lodge (12 rooms) followed in 1988. Both are located on the periphery of the Royal Chitwan National Park, 150km from Kathmandu. The park covers 932km' of the subtropical lowlands of the south central Himalayas and was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1992.

The decision to build the Narayani facilities outside the National Park
At the planning stage, permission to build tourist facilities inside the park could have been obtained. (Seven tourist lodges were already located inside the park). However, the company believed that National Parks should be set aside primarily for conservation and decided to site the facilities outside the Park and apply for permission to use the Park only for wildlife viewing trips. It was the first time in Nepal that a tourist enterprise had made such a request. This decision was taken despite the marketing disadvantage, as most tourists clearly preferred to be housed within the park.

Choice of building materials
The facilities were built on land of low agricultural value. Wooden beams, door and window frames from derelict houses on the land were reused for building the single-storey cottages of the hotel and lodge. No trees were felled for construction.
Elephant grass was used initially to thatch the cottage roofs. However, because these tended to leak during the monsoon, the grass was replaced by locally¬made clay tiles. Every January, the park authorities invite the tourist lodges and villages to cut the elephant grass they require before burning the remains so that new grass can grow.

Solar panels are used for water heating. As there are no facilities for storing solar energy, hot water is not supplied at night. Despite the low cost of wood and charcoal, LPG gas is used for cooking.
Even though Narayani Safari is located outside the National Park, it adheres to the park regulations and does not use electricity on the property. Lighting is provided through kerosene lamps.

Narayani Safari has attempted to demonstrate to the surrounding villages that well planned tourism can bring tangible benefits. Initially these communities were "anti-national park and anti-tourism" but by employing villagers as staff at the hotel and lodge
And allocating a part of profits to rural projects, Narayani Safari helped the villages establish a health centre, a vegetable nursery and a secondary school scholarship programme.

With the ultimate aim of reducing the local community's dependence on the National Park and thereby stopping the illegal exploitation of its resources, Narayani Safari began working with non-governmental organizations to help villagers establish fruit and fodder tree plantations.

Visitor communication
A code of conduct on environmentally-sensitive behaviour in the National Park is available to guests in English, Spanish, Japanese and Chinese. Visitors are asked to limit the use of water, and are given safety instructions on using the kerosene lamps.

"It is our intention to serve as an example of the positive impact that tourism can bring to rural communities. By operating in an environmentally sensitive manner we hope to contribute to the better management of the National Park and its buffer zones".

Mr Lochan Gyawali

Continuation (IHRA Good Practices)

Sanga Saby Conference & Study Centre

Sanga Saby was established as a centre for agricultural research over 50 years ago by the National Swedish Farmers Union. Today the Sanga Saby Conference & Study Centre is a separate company affiliated to the Union. Conference participants make up a large share of its market.

It is located on Lake Malaren; on Faringo Island, 35 km from Stockholm. The 'main building is a manor house dating back to the early 18th century. Sanga Saby offers conference facilities for 350 persons, a restaurant seating 150 and 113 guest rooms.

Environmental activities at Sanga Saby began with an internal environmental audit undertaken by students of the local high school, who continue to monitor and report bi-annually on the centre's environmental progress.

Waste water treatment
A waste water treatment plant is located on site. In 1992, the plant was entirely renovated and now includes a 3-stage water purification process. First the water passes through mill strainers and is purified by oxygenation using air compressors. AY the final precipitation stage, PAX 21 is added to sink sludge. (PAX 21 is: free from chloride aluminium and is one the most environmentally friendly substances for separating sludge.) Residues are destroyed by bacteria before water is transported to the municipal sewage treatment plant. Treated waste water is directed to an outlet in Lake Malaren.

Economic & Environmental benefits:
The total amount of waste water treated through this plant in 1995, which is also used by local apartments and a farm, was 15,398m3. (Exact volumes of waste water generated by the conference centre cannot yet be quantified).

Water saving devices
All water outlets have been fitted with water-saving nozzles and public restrooms furnished with urine-separating toilets.

Economic & Environmental benefits:
Through these devices Sanga Saby estimates that the volume of water consumption has dropped by 40%, which equates to SEK 10,000-12,000 (US$ 1,506-1,807).

Use of renewable energy
67% of the entire facility is heated and cooled using marine and geothermal energy. Supplementary energy is generated through boilers fuelled by rape methyl esters (RME), or rape seed oil. All electricity used by the centre is produced from renewable sources.

In early 1995, Sanga Saby in association with the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, acquired Sweden's first RME-powered car. Today all vehicles and tractors at Sanga Saby operate on RME. Lawn mowers are operated on solar energy and rape seed oil.

Solar panels have been installed on the roof of the sauna /relaxing area which provide a majority of the energy for heating and hot water in the sauna and swimming pool.

Good housekeeping measures
 Low energy light bulbs and fluorescent lights are used whenever possible
 Motion detectors turn out the lights when conference rooms are empty
 All guest rooms are fitted with individual thermostats.
 Time relay control systems reduce indoor temperature at night in all guest rooms and public areas.
 Weather strips on windows and doors are checked annually and replaced as needed

Economic & environmental benefits:
Whereas in 1994, Sanga Saby served 22 people on 1 mwh in a 24 hour period, in 1995, 26 people were served - an increase in energy efficiency of 15%. (Note: this calculation has been adjusted to take into account increased occupancy and energy use during the hard winter of 1995.).

Waste separation
A waste separation programme ensures the separation of paper, aluminium, organic waste from kitchen and garden, glass, batteries and other hazardous waste substances. Waster water from the kitchen goes through a separate cycle where fats enter a separating tank before reaching the sewage plant for further treatment.

Biodegradable disposable items and bulk buying
Disposable items are only used for picnics and excursions Plastic items have been replaced with starch-based biodegradable materials and cardboard. Portion packs have been replaced by larger bulk packs. The delivery system ensures that all packing is taken back for recycling. All delivery trucks are fuelled with rape seed oil.

Environmental & economic benefits:
Waste volumes are estimated to have fallen by 60% in 1995.

Progress monitoring model
To ensure precise monitoring of environmental progress and the calculation of environmental and economic benefits, in August 1996 Sanga Saby in association with the Stockholm House of Sustainable Economy, developed a tailor-made environmental monitoring system. The accurate measurement of real environmental benefits will be possible from 1997.

The Sanga Saby Conference and Study Centre's water purification and treatment facilities are also used by a nearby farm and over 20 neighbouring villas and apartments.

All staff were involved in the drawing up Sanga Saby's environmental policy and action programme to ensure their full co-operation and participation. Training is an important priority. The wage system includes environmental performance¬related bonuses for all staff.

Visitor communication
Sanga Saby is often invited to make presentations on its environmental work at the conferences and meetings it hosts. In 1995, 62% of the guests were introduced to the Centre's environmental programme through such presentations.

Notices in rooms request the guest to:
 Leave paper and other recyclable materials on the table or on the floor or proper disposal
 Switch-off TV sets using the main button and not with the remote control
 Adjust room temperature using the radiator switch, not the windows

Environmental & Economic benefits
Sanga Saby reports that occupancy has risen by almost 10% per annum since 1993, and this is largely attributed to its environmental activities.
"Our ambition is to lead the way in the future, and serve as a prototype for environmental action in the industry, both in Sweden and world-wide. "

Mats Fack, Managing Director
Jimmy Sjoblom, Manager's Assistant, Market and Environment

Scandic Hotels

Scandic is presently Scandinavia's largest hotel chain with over 100 hotels in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. The chain also operates hotels in Germany, Austria, Belgium and Great Britain.

Scandic's environmental policy underlines the need "to move from resource wasting - to resource caring". An environmental action programme, focusing on the customer environment, food and beverage, water, energy, packing arid waste handling, laundry, dish washing and cleaning, logistics and transport is being implemented across the chain. The approach and the pace of implementation of the programme differs from country to country.

The Scandic Environmental Room: 97% recyclable or biodegradable
The "recyclable room" was first tried out in 1994 and is now being introduced to all Scandic hotels. 2,500 such rooms have been installed throughout Scandinavia. From 1996 an additional 1,500 rooms will be introduced each year, demonstrating environmental sensitivity through design and choice of materials.

The material content of all materials, parts and design elements in the environmental rooms are labelled, so that the durability of each part can be assessed and they can be effectively re-used.

• All timber used is from Nordic trees carrying a sustainable felling stamp.
• Lacquers and paints used are water based, UV lacquer or powder lacquered materials
. Floors are either wooden or laid with wall-to-wall wool carpets.
• Curtains and bedspreads are 100% cotton and flame-proof.
• Table tops have a laminated surface for extra durability.
• Wastepaper baskets are made with sheet steel to ensure fire safety.
• Corn starch based bin liners are currently being tested.
• Cupboards and panels are made of wooden boards with a veneer of Nordic alder.
• Armchairs and sofas have wooden frames with steel springs, are upholstered with cotton or wool and reinforced with leather for durability
• Lighting is provided through low energy light bulbs. Metal parts in fittings have been replaced with wood. Shades are made of reinforced material, lacquered aluminium or recyclable plastic.
• Rooms have thermostatically-controlled individual heating.
• All environmental rooms are non-smoking.
• Accessories made of wood include baggage racks, frames and hooks for bed and paintings, and coat hangers.

Economic & Environmental benefits:
The cost of fitting an environmental room is 10"% higher than a conventional Scan*. tx-tc4 room. Scandic dcx s not consider this to be an additional cost as 6ech part of the rrxvn sari tx: reused. For every 1000 morns built or refitted, the consumption of nor)-renewable resources is reduced by 10 tons of metal and 60 tons of plastic. Scandic refxxts that the market regx-,rise to the PnvimnrnPntal rrorrn is verv vositive - thev are alwavs the first sold out.

Recyclable soap and shampoo programme
A standard cake of hotel soap weighs 15 grams, wrapped in plastic. An overnight guest uses approximately 3 grams and the rest is thrown away. Scandic have launched an entirely recyclable shampoo and soap system, replacing individual bars and bottles with dispensers made out of recycled plastic (polyethylene terephthalate). Soaps and shampoos use natural products and sugar cane and are biodegradable.

Environmental and Economic benefits:
Across the chain; chemical effluent has been reduced annually by 30 tons. Plastic and aluminium packing waste has been reduced by 8 tons per year.

Scandic Environmental Index
All Scandic Hotels are required to report on their environmental performance every quarter. A 14 point index has been developed to assist progress monitoring and benchmarking within each property and across the chain. This lays special emphasis on energy consumption, which is adjusted accorded to business volume, outside temperature and wind cycle.

Environmental Performance Benchmarking
Environmental performance is one of 20 criteria of the Scandic Corporate Financial Benchmarking scheme. From Autumn 1996, all Scandic hotels will include environmental costs and benefits in financial reports. As environmental performance becomes an essential success indicator, Scandic can ensure that environmental action will be fully integrated into the daily management and operation of all its hotels.

The ABC of the Environment
Scandic works closely with the Swedish organization "The Natural Step" to produce publications, including "The ABC of the Environment".

"The Challenge" programme
Scandic is a partner in "The Challenge", a programme to facilitate dialogue and co-operation on continuous environmental management and improvement. (Other participants include Electrolux, McDonalds Sweden, the Swedish Railway System and the Swedish Farmers Co-operative).

Economic and Environmental Benefits:
Market surveys in 1995 indicate that the environmental programme has strongly enhanced the corporate image of Scandic Hotels.

Visitor Communication
Scandic explains to guests why the new environmental measures and products have been introduced and what benefits are being achieved through them. Posters, leaflets are exhibited and environmental magazines are displayed in all rooms and in the lobby of each hotel. A suggestion box for green ideas is also available.

All employees across the chain receive between 1 and 5 days of environmental training.

"We are have received considerable support for our environmental programme from both existing and new customers and have positioned Scandic to target a new 'green' and health-conscious client segment. We have also been approached by companies and organizations outside our normal business environment, and sharing our environmental knowledge and experience with them has led to new business. "

Mr Ola Evarsson
Director Environmental Affairs and Corporate Purchasing

Phuket Yacht CIub
IHA Independent Green Hotelier of the Year 1996

The Phuket Yacht Club is a Mandarin Oriental Resort located on Nai Harn Beach, Phuket, with a radically different approach to environmental management. The hotel's environmental committee is convinced that environmental sustainability can only be achieved through programmes that:

 Increase environmental awareness
• Stress the urgent need to act due to the present state of the environment
• Develop the notion of `environmental stewardship' - a positive and caring attitude towards the environment

The main focus is on changing peoples attitudes, starting with the Yacht Club staff and widening the range of influence to reach the village communities of Phuket and Thailand.

Water treatment and recycling
Waste water from the hotel goes through a treatment process using BIO-BAC which treats the water biologically. It is then used for watering the gardens.

Economic & environmental Benefits:
The Yacht Club estimates that per day it saves 70m I of water and 1,750 Baht (US$ 70) in high season and 40m3 of water and 1000 Baht (US$ 40) in low season from recycling water.

Water conservation tent cards
Cards in bathrooms inform guests "Water is a precious commodity on our island and your co-operation in conserving this valuable resource during your stay with us will be greatly appreciated." They are also invited to reuse towels.

Economic & environmental benefits:
Laundry loads (especially towels) have been reduced by 25%.

Measures to optimise energy use include:
• A heat recovery system installed in the laundry.
• Hot water maintained at 50°C at tap to ensure minimum use of energy for water heating
• Refrigeration defrost cycles start during off-peak demand periods to keep costs down
• Curtains and blinds closed to reduce external solar heat transfer.
• A reflective roof installed above the walk-in fridge to reduce energy consumption

Economic & environmental benefits:
The hotel estimates that these measures save 6% in electricity costs per month, which equates to 26,400 Baht (US$ 1,056)

Rubbish Recycling Project '
Paper, cardboard boxes, plastic, metal, aluminium cans, organic waste, cooking oil and glass waste is collected, separated, stored (when required) and sold for recycling or reuse.

Economic .& environmental benefits:
Over 1,000kg of newspapers are recycled each month and every day five 26 gallon containers of organic waste are sent to a local pig farm. Annual revenue earned from the recycling of waste is insignificant 800 - 1,200 Baht. (US$ ;32¬48) but its primary objective is to raise staff awareness on the importance of recycling.

All refrigerants are low in CFCs' and halon fire extinguishers have been replaced by equipment operating on carbon dioxide and dry powder.


 Minimum Standards for Environmental Protection'
The Phuket Yacht Club has issued an environmental action checklist for all hotels in Phuket with 65 actions listed under front office, housekeeping, laundry, restaurants, room service and bars, kitchen, stewarding, waste management, maintenance and engineering, and general actions. The Phuket / Thai Hotels Association has adopted these standards, and all its members are required to maintain them.

 Training workshops for Thai Hotel Association members
At the request of the Thai Hotel Association (THA), the Phuket Yacht Club Environment Committee is preparing environmental management training workshops in 1996 for all members of THA in Phuket.

 Environmental seminars for Phuket's Police
In early 1996 the Phuket Yacht Club organized environmental seminars for 88 policemen from the region to discuss the environmental issues of Phuket and to consult on possible ways and means to resolve them.

 Environmental curriculum for primary schools
In association with the Thai Ministry of Education, work has begun to develop a environmental curriculum for primary schools in the area. Workshops to introduce this curriculum to primary school teachers, first in Phuket and then all over Thailand, are planned for November 1996. The hotel's Total Quality Manager also holds weekly environmental education classes for local children.

 Beach cleaning activities
The Phuket Yacht Club started beach cleaning in response to guest complaints, to offer an example to other hotels, and to drive home the message to environmental stewardship to both staff and local communities. The programme first focused on the Nai Ham Beach and has expanded to several other areas in Phuket. To maintain cleanliness, waste bins/collection points have been set up on the hinterland. The programme has growing support from the hotel staff, local schools, communities and government.

 The Yacht Club is negotiating the upgrading of the municipal waste collection service, for which the local communities may be required to pay a small fee.

Environmental benefits:
The district won the 1995 local government annual award for the prettiest district in Phuket, and the area around the Nai llam Beach and reservoir has been designated a public park - the Rawai Public Park.

 Tree planting campaigns
The survival of Phuket's Mangrove Forests is threatened by construction projects such as shrimp farms. The Phuket Yacht Club, with support from the State Provincial Forestry Department and local communities, has initiated several Mangrove tree planting and maintenance campaigns. Its environmental committee, with support from the national forestry authorities, is working on a project to plant a natural medicine forest on lands attached to the National Nai Yang Forest in Phuket.

 General environmental workshops are held every Saturday. Special training is given on maintenance to ensure that all equipment is regularly cleaned and serviced to avoid spills, odours and leaks and ensure maximum operating efficiency.

 All job descriptions include an environmental section. Staff members are required to "protect the environment and be economical as possible with resources and materials used in the job, including electricity, paper and water".

 When new staff members join the hotel their orientation training includes a 45-minute session on the environment, the work of the resort environment committee and how they can participate in environmental activities.

 Much emphasis is given to encouraging staff members to adopt good housekeeping actions such as switching off air conditioners and other equipment when not in use, and separating waste into recycling containers as a part of their daily routine.

Visitor communication
A video on the Club's environmental activities will soon be ready for viewing on the in-house TV channel. The new guest services directory also provides information. A tent card in guest rooms invites visitors to "Think E.A.R.T.H: Energy, Air, Resources, Trees and Humanity".,

"What makes our environmental programme special is that the benefit of society and the education of people are placed first. It is not only a collection of energy saving and recycling measures. Each action is used as educational tool to develop in people a sense of responsibility toward the environment."

Mr Peter McAlpine
Total Quality Manager

Dusit Hotels and Resorts

Dusit Hotels and Resorts is the leading hotel group in Thailand. It has 10 hotels located throughout the country, some owned and managed by Dusit Hotels and Resorts, some operated under management contract.

The group's environmental programme began in 1991 with a nation-wide effort to plant a tree for each of Dusit's 3,000 hotel rooms in the locality of each hotel. Since then, a corporate programme based on the group's Uniform Environmental Standards, has been developed and is being implemented in all hotels. Each hotel has identified its environmental priorities and developed corresponding action plans.

Uniform Environmental Standards
Dusit's Uniform Environmental Standards cover:

 Water conservation, treatment and recycling
 Reducing energy use
 Waste separation
 Use of recycled products and those with reduced packaging
 Restructuring manpower
 Staff training and orientation Internship programme
 "Eco-team" awards
 Conservation of the natural beauty in the areas where hotels are located
 Participation in community environmental protection

The Standards include resource use and monitoring levels (presented below).

Water consumption is monitored based on:
• m3 per number of inhouse guests
• m3 per number of food and beverage covers
• m3 per 100 Baht of,total revenue

Dusit is a member of the Energy Conservation Centre of Thailand, which serves (among its many other functions) as an information centre for new energy technology. The group's Technical Service Division provides recommendations and information to all hotels in the chain.

Energy levels are maintained as follows:
 Overall thermal transfer values: less than 45 watts per m2

Maximum levels of lighting:
 Questrooms and corridors: 15 watts per m2
 Public areas: 17 watts per m2
 Banqueting areas: 20 watt per m2


Electricity consumption is monitored as follows:
• KWH per number of in-house guests
• KWH per 100 Baht of total revenue
• KWH per m2 of service area in function room
• KWH per m2 of total outdoor area
• KWH per m2 of total indoor back-of-house area

Gas consumption
• Litres per number of covers served
• Litres per 100 Baht of food and beverage revenue

Fuel consumption
• Litres per pound of laundry
• Litres per 100 Baht of total revenue

Solid waste
Waste volumes are calculated based on:
• Each waste category as a fraction of total waste
• Total tonnage per guest
• Total tonnage per staff member.

The "Ecoteam" award
An award is presented to the hotel which can best demonstrate good environmental practice. Drawing and environmental slogan contests are organized to encourage the families of staff members to participate.

Sample actions
 Silver reflectors installed to reduce the number of light bulbs used. This cuts energy consumption in half.
 Building reservoirs, tanks and lagoons to collect rain water
 Installing heat reclaim chillers in all hotels
 Using unbleached, undyed cotton for linen, towels and laundry bags.
 Installing flow reducers in all water outlets and toilets
 A pre-water heating system using solar energy at the Dusit Resort in Pattaya

"Dusit Hotels realises the importance of protecting and conserving the environment and natural resources. Not only the Dusit Group but the hotel industry in Thailand has made a leading group effort on environmental issues. "
Jumpoon Chavasiri,
Director, Human Resources,
Dusit Hotels & Resorts

Derwentwater Hotel
Keswick, UK
IHA Independent Green Hotelier of the Year 1995

The Derwentwater is a country hotel near Keswick, in the English Lake District. It is set on the north western shore of Lake Derwentwater on 16 acres of conservation grounds. The hotel incorporates the main building - a three-storey 19th century stone structure; the Derwentwater Tower - a former country house of the same age and construction and a large conservatory, overlooking the lake.

The hotel has been undergoing refurbishment since 1993. It currently has 52 bedrooms (including 5 suites) and 18 self-catering apartments. Rooms will be reduced to 42, and apartments will be increased to 22 in February 1997. The hotel's only conference room will be lost during refurbishment.

Water saving measures
During refurbishment, all baths are replaced by showers and flow-reducers are used in all outlets. Low flush toilets have been installed in the refurbished bathrooms. In the older toilets, used plastic mineral water bottles are filled and placed in cisterns to reduce flush flow.

Economic & environmental benefits:
In refurbished rooms, water consumption has reduced by 11 litres per day per room. In 1995 this represented a saving of 154,497 litres of water, which equates to £197 (US$ 303). The bottles in the cisterns alone save 30,000 litres of water per.year, or £37 (US$ 57).

Individual combination boilers
Individual combination boilers have been introduced in the self-catering apartments. They provide heating and hot water on demand, and avoid hot water storage so consume less energy.

Heating zones
The hotel has 3 gas-fired boilers each serving its own zone, so zones can be closed down at times of low occupancy. They also provide more flexibility for maintenance and reduce the impact of boiler plant repair.

Maximising boiler capacity
The main hotel is heated through low-pressure hot water radiators served by gas-fired boilers. An appraisal of the heating system showed that certain boilers were being used under capacity. Therefore radiators replaced electric heaters in the conservatory.

Energy saving housekeeping measures
 Insulation of the loft with 200mm of fibreglass and of hot water pipes
 Low energy lighting
 Double glazing in the self-catering apartments
 lonisers on all gas equipment
 Overrider thermostats on the central boilers to delay ignition of the boilers
 Better use of existing time clocks on gas boilers and electric heaters

Economic & environmental benefits:
Despite regular and routine readings of gas and electricity metres, precise calculations of economic and environmental benefits are not possible due to the ongoing refurbishment. However, the hotel estimates that since 1994, combined energy saving efforts bring over 20% savings in energy costs which equates to £5,400 (US$ 8,308) per year.

lonisers on beer lines
lonisers have been placed on the beer lines in the hotel cellar. The beer lines now need to be cleaned only once every 4 weeks instead of once a week.

Economic & environmental benefits:
This has reduced effluent by over 54 litres a week, which include 50 litres of waste beer. The reduction in waste beer and cleaning materials bring weekly savings of E134 (US$ 206), while the reduction in labour costs is £1,170 (US$ 1,800) per annum.

Aerosols and refillable dispensers
Only plastic pump action aerosols are used. Individual toiletries in the guest rooms have been replaced by recyclable and refillable dispensers.

Economic & environmental benefits:
Reducing bedroom toiletries resulted in savings of £7,800 (US$ 12,000) a year.

Waste-free breakfast
The use of individual packs of cereal, butter, jam and yoghurt has been stopped at the breakfast buffet. Items are purchased in bulk and displayed on the buffet in bowls to eliminate waste.

Staff are informed about the environmental programme from the interview stage. Environmental information is included in the induction programme and the staff handbook.

Visitor communication
The Derwentwater Hotel's environment statement is displayed prominently in the reception area. Comments on the environmental programme are received regularly through the guest satisfaction questionnaire.

"Going Greener" leaflet is put in all guest rooms listing the hotel's environmental actions and "Did you know" environmental information such as:
 The energy from recycling one aluminium can operates your TV for 3 hours
 If your fridge is 10% colder than necessary, your energy bill will be 25% higher.
 By recycling one glass bottle, you can save enough energy to light a 60w bulb for 4 hours.

In the hotel grounds, several programmes are underway to encourage wildlike. The hotel is working with English Nature to develop a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the grounds.

"My advice on starting an environmental programme is to give it a go. It maybe something small - but it is doing your bit. I am astonished that we have not had one letter of customer complaint about our measures - it just shows what fixed ideas we have,"

Mr Ian Aston,
Managing Director

Habitat Suites Hotel
Austin, Texas

The Habitat Suites Hotel has gained a reputation as a "safe haven from toxic chemicals and environmental ills that travellers must endure in ordinary hotels". Located three miles from the municipal airport and 6 miles from the city centre, the hotel operates 96 suites - 72 with one bedroom and 24 with two. Each suite is equipped with a living room, breakfast bar and a full service kitchen. Meeting facilities are available for 50 persons. Restaurant services are available only for breakfast and conference meals.

Habitat Suites has a strong corporate, federal and state government clientele. Extended stay (30 days or longer) visitors contribute 10% of the total occupancy. Its environmental programme stresses environmentally sound housekeeping.

When refurbishing:
 Chloroflorocarbons (CFC) were recovered from all discarded equipment. New purchases use established CFC alternatives.
 Aluminium window frames were removed and a reflective roof cover added to avoid heat transfer.
 Only water-based paints were used.
 Carpets were layed with no adhesives.

To reduce water consumption:
 Aerators have been fitted to sinks and shower heads, reducing water flow from 5 to 2.1 gallons (19 to 8 litres) per minute.
 Water saving toilets have been installed in all suites and staff toilets which use 1.5 gallons (6 litres) per flush, as opposed to the normal 3.5 gallons (13 litres).
 Bed linen and towels are changed on request only.
 Washing machines are programmed for low water usage.
 • Water-saving sprinklers in irrigation outlets are estimated to save 500 gallons (1,894 litres) a day.
 Native plant species that require less water are used for landscaping.

Economic and environmental benefits:
The combined water-saving measures bring the hotel an estimated saving of US$ 9,000 in water consumption costs per year.

A non-toxic ionization system to replace chlorine in the swimming pool
Instead of chlorine, a non toxic copper and silver ionization system is used to sterilize the swimming pool and spa. This involves passing a low alternating direct current (6-12 volts) between copper and silver electrodes, fitted in the returning line of the pool and spa. The current causes the release of virus-killing copper and silver ions which are carried into the pool and spa with the returning water. They give good residual protection, are unaffected by UV or heat and cannot be absorbed through the skin. (The level required to sanitize wa-ter is a fraction of that classified as safe to consume by the US Environmental Protection Agency)

Economic & environmental benefits:
Use of chlorine has been eliminated and the use of other maintenance chemicals has been reduced by 50%. Ionization is non-corrosive to the equipment and the pool and spa surface and there is a vast improvement in water quality. "Red eye" complaints have ceased.

 Refrigerators are maintained at 38°F (3°C) and the freezer at 5°F (-15°C) to minimize the use of electricity.
 Motion sensors turn the lights on and off in guest laundry rooms and public restrooms.
 The pool water circulation pump operates during peak hours only (10am-10 pm).
 Hot water is maintained at 125°F (52°C) in guest rooms and 140°F (60°C) in the laundry - sufficient for guest use and laundry. (Excess heating of water is energy and cost intensive).
 15 energy-efficient air-conditioning units have been installed and Habitat Suites plans to gradually change over all units.

Economic & environmental benefits:
The use of fluorescent lighting and air-condition units alone save the hotel over 122,000 kw of energy per year, which equates to US $ 10,954.

 Grease traps have been fitted in all waste pipes.
 Paper towels are unbleached, unscented and recycled after use
 Organic fertilizers with no herbicides are used for the garden.
 Fire extinguishers are refiNab~e and ha;on-free.

Visitor communication
Alladvertising stresses Habitat Suite's commitment to be a "green" hotel. It has an increasing number of visitors who suffer from environmental allergies and illnesses. It is a popular venue for meetings on environmental awareness and action. In addition to the traditional breakfast menu, which is 100% organic and additive- and preservative-free, a microbiotic breakfast option is also available.

At recruitment stage, staff are informed of the hotel's environmental commitment. Ongoing awareness programmes are organized and cash rewards offered for "green" ideas.

"We receive at least one telephone call every day inquiring about our environmental efforts. We are inspired by our increasing number of environmentally-ill clients. They are a reminder that if we do not change our ways, we will all be poisoned."

Mr Eduardo Longoria
Managing Partner

Hotel Inter-Continental Miami
Winner of the 1993 IHA Environmental Award

The Hotel Inter-Continental Miami is a 34-storey property located in the heart of Miami's financial and commercial district. With its 664 rooms, 240 of which are designated as non-smoking rooms, 33 suites, 5 restaurants and over 61,000 ft2 of meeting and banqueting space, the hotel caters to business executives, conventions and leisure travellers.

Water Recovery System
Waste water from the laundry is treated and reused to water the gardens in the hotel's plaza level fifth floor. Drought resistant plant varieties have been used in the gardens. In 1994, the hotel installed a water metering device that monitors the quantities consumed by each department and improves the control of water use.

Reducing water consumption
In the bathrooms, water outlets and showers are equipped with aerators. Four gallon toilets have 1.5 gallon water saver units.

Environmental and economic benefits:
These measures collectively save the hotel over 400,000 gallons of water per year, which amounts to $4,000.

Reducing energy consumption
Incandescent lights have been replaced with single florescent lamps, and in renovated guest rooms, the wattage has been reduced from 40 to 34 watts. The air-conditioning system has been retro-fitted to an automatic thermostat system.

Energy Efficiency Programme
The Miami Inter-Continental has implemented the Florida Power and Light (the local power company's) Energy Efficiency Programme.

Motion censors have been installed in all meeting rooms, air condition filters are changed once a month instead of every two months, temperatures on corridors and elevators are adjusted, variable frequency drives are fixed on all electric motors, and timers are fitted on all energy equipment.

Economic and environmental benefits:
Collectively these actions save an estimated 400,000 kwh of energy annually, which amounts to $2,400.

"Inter-Cycle" is the name of the waste minimization and management programme of the Inter-Continental Miami. It's objectives are to reduce, re-use and recycle waste whenever possible, guarantee appropriate disposal, and ensure regular monitoring through waste management audits and an annual cost/benefit analysis.

Reducing the generation of waste
All suppliers are asked to take responsibility for their packaging. Suppliers must take back wooden crates and pallets that were previously left on the hotel loading dock or pay for their disposal. The hotel reports "the results are remarkable."

Purchasing environmentally friendly products and "closing the recycling loop"
The Inter-Continental Miami has adopted a policy to purchase environmentally sensitive products, eg. items that are recyclable or biodegradable, and made from recycled materials. Suppliers are asked to provide information on the environmental sensitivity of their products, and to suggest alternatives for toxic and heavy resource consuming items The above actions aim to "close the recycling loop" and help stimulate the market for recycled products.

Economic and environmental benefits:
Over 98% of the hotel's general ledger consists of materials with the highest possible recycled content, minimized toxicity and reduced packing. 100'x, recycled purchases include stationery and all promotional material, toilet and tissue paper, guest amenity containers and re-fillable pencils for guest rooms.

Recycling and reuse
Waste collection and recycling programmes have been set up for paper, PET (Poly Ethylene Terephthalate) and HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) plastic, cardboard, glass, batteries, used florescent lamps, motor and kitchen oils, scrap metal, styrofoam and aluminum.

Among other re-use initiatives:
 Edible left-over food is donated to food bank's
 Guest amenities eg. soaps and lotions are collected by the Miami Rescue Mission
 Old furniture and decorative ancilliaries are donated to local charities
 Old sheeting is reused as laundry bags (to replace plastic bags)
 Old electrical appliances are re-sold to suppliers
 Christmas trees are planted to be reused the following year
 Batteries and florescent lamps are recycled through the state programme
 Reusable containers are used for storing and holding cleaning liquids
 50 gallon containers are reused as recycling bins and garbage cans
 Photocopying on both sides of the paper
Non-recyclable waste is compacted in a 30 m3 compactor

Environmental and econornic benefits:
Before « Inter-Cycle » began the hotel generated 1,420 tons of waste annually and disposal costs amounted to $85,000. Since 1992 with "Inter-Cycle" up alld running, over 30 items and 45% of the hotels waste stream are recovered aid recycled. Disposal volumes have fallen to 679 tons and disposal costs are down to $31,000 per annurn - with garbage collection just once a week, instead of every other day.

Annual vendors summit
The hotel encourages cooperation and dialogue with suppliers through its annual Vendors Summit. which serves as a forum to inform suppliers of its commitment to resource conservation and pollution prevention, and to encourage them to apply environmentally sound practices in the production and distribution of their products.

Monitoring checklist are used to verify if each item the hotel uses can be better re-used or recycled. Each department has to maintain a record of its waste output.

Cost benefit analysis
A regular waste management audit is performed with assistance from an environmental consultancy. This is followed by an annual cost benefit analysis of the entire "Inter-Cycle" initiative. Both economic and environmental costs and benefits are evaluated.

The costs of operating the "Inter Cycle" programme (purchase of containers for collection, internal publicity costs, coordinators time, etc) and actual waste disposal fees are calculated and offset against:
 The extra waste disposal charges that would have been due if recycling/reuse initiatives were not in operation
 Revenues from selling recyclables
 Estimated value of the non-tangible benefits of Inter-Cycle such as marketing gains and improved employee morale.

Improved noise comfort
The laundry was formerly located next to the hotel ventilation system's air compressors, and the engineer's shop next to the chiller plant. Due to excess noise both work areas have been relocated. Mechanics and ground-keepers are required to wear ear plugs when working with power equipment.

The Inter-Continental Miami is a member of the Florida Department of Transportation's "Keep Florida Beautiful" and has adopted 2 miles of highway extending from the front of the hotel to Biscayne Boulevard. The hotel also participates in numerous regional and local environmental campaigns such as the Earth Day Anniversary festivities, the US Conference of Mayor's National Paper Recycling Project and the Buy Recycled Business Alliance.

The "Green Team" coordinates the environmental effort. It includes all department heads and a representative from the environmental consultancy. To coordinate the collection of recyclables, the special post of "Mr Inter-Cycle" was created. Monthly competitions are organized to select the "recycler of the month" and the "recycling department of the month".

Special training sessions are held on environmental awareness and incorporating environmental action into daily operational procedures. Much emphasis is given to good housekeeping practices . Training sessions are held in English, Spanish and Creole. Likewise "Inter-Cycle" promotional posters and recycling container labels also appear in these languages. An information sheet on the "Inter-Cycle" programme is included in all job descriptions.

Visitor communication
The Hotel Inter-Continental Miami's environmental policy statement is displayed at the front desk, in meeting rooms and in restaurants. Tent cards have been placed in all guest rooms on recycling, water conservation and energy awareness. G


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