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Paper on Community Travel and Tourism Marketing

Paper on Community Travel and Tourism Marketing

Every community if affected by visitors. While many communities recognize opportunities for growth in the tourism industry, options at the local level expand when travelers are included. Travelers are people away from home temporarily. In collecting data, sometimes "more than
miles away from home" further defines a traveler.

This travel may result from a variety of sources: a pleasure vacation, business and convention purposes, friends and relatives, special events and festivals, sport recreation, historic sites, specific attractions, or when people pass-through headed for another destination. The cash register doesn't sort out travel purchases this way, and in reality it is impractical to separate tourists from travelers. All visitors are important to the travel and
tourism industry.

Minnesota is experiencing a boom in communities organizing to attract and host visitors as a way to diversify and boost economies. The impact of travel and tourism on the local economy goes beyond first level expenditures at food, lodging, gas, entertainment, and retail establishments. Travel spending brings in outside dollars that "turn over" in the community. Even if you do not have direct contact with travelers, the money filters through the entire
economy as residents re-spend travel dollars. But the increased interest in tourism translates to fierce competition in the marketplace.

Key to gaining the attention of potential tourists is development of a community marketing, not a selling approach. Marketing is a continuous, coordinated set of activities associated with efficiently distributing products to high potential markets. It involves making decisions about product, price, promotion, and distribution. Marketing focuses on providing customer benefits and satisfying needs better than the competition. It is based on the principle that consumer buying resistance will be overcome if the product satisfies buyer needs.

In contrast, selling focuses on the product offered rather than satisfying customer needs. It assumes that the main thing necessary to sell the product is to overcome purchase resistance. A statement reflecting the selling approach is "we will attract tourists to OurCity because we want tourists and everyone would want to visit.

Selling is only a small part of marketing. The formal marketing process involves six steps:

- Analyze your current situation.

- Identify product(s).

- Select target market(s).

- Set objectives.

- Carry out promotion strategies.

- Evaluate results

When the structure to support tourism is in place - 1) attractions, 2) services and facilities, 3) an information/direction/interpretive system, and 4) transportation linkages - communities can move to market their unique tourist and travel experiences. This publication outlines one approach for preparing a marketing that describes how you will get visitors to stop, to stay, to tell others, and to return.

Analyze Your Current Situation

What does your community have that travelers want? The first step in the marketing process is to conduct an inventory and analysis of the travel and tourism industry and its potential within your area. Tourism isn't just a community or collection of small businesses with an interest in attracting visitors. Tourism is an entire "region" organizing to draw and host travelers-it's an overall view with a wide angle lens.

Analysis answers the question "what is?" as a basis for "what could be?" Ten crucial questions for a community to answer on a regular basis include:

1. What attractions exist that will entice people to stop and visit?

2. What hospitality services and facilities are available?

3. What experiences are visitors having in the community?

4. What promotion methods are used? How well do they work?

5. What are the current markets?

6. What is the competition for your community?

7. How is tourism related to the community lifestyle and goals?"

8. What roles do community organizations play in tourism development?

9. What are trends that affect the tourism industry?

10. What are the community strengths and weaknesses, problems and opportunities in serving visitors?

Attractions (question 1 )

Through fate or creativity, most communities have tourist attractions that draw visitors. A community's basic assets may include:

- Natural resources, or a scenic setting;
- Human-made attractions such as racetracks, museums, or resorts;
- Historical sites;
- Cultural and ethnic resources;
-Recreation opportunities;
-Special events and festivals;
-Availability of high quality personal services such as shopping, medical care and education; or
-Local industries and economic base.

Describe each attraction, including quality. How many of each type of attraction are there? Look forward and list potential visitor resources that could be enhanced or used more fully. The Minnesota Extension Service publication "So Community Wants Tourism" outlines the range of travel attractors that determine a community's capability to bring travelers.

As you develop a community tourism campaign, it is useful to separate "core" attractions that are a prime reason for travel, from secondary "supporting" attractions that enhance a visitor's experience once they are there. There are infinite reasons to visit Minneapolis and St. Paul, but Twin Cities Attractions Council is organized to promote the plus theaters, museums, special events, and other core attractions that draw large audiences.

This distinction is useful when you are selecting an image for your marketing program. The Spicer area tourism committee has developed a four-tier list of tourism assets: most important (includes Green Lake, resorts, 2 hours to Twin Cities); important (Sibley State Park,
fishing, golf course); significant (fall colors, hunting, July 4 celebration); and contributing(antique shops, sailing regattas, farm tours). Spicer's marketing theme reflects this ranking.

Hospitality Services (question 2)

The economic impact of tourism largely comes from spending in the hospitality sector primarily composed of private commercial businesses. The U.S. Travel Data Center estimates tourist dollar expenditures on a statewide basis by category (1985):

Food $0.26
Public transportation .25
Auto transportation .17
Lodging .15
Entertainment & recreation .09
Retail and other .08

In nonmetropolitan areas these figures would shift; for example, the public transportation component would drop significantly. It is useful to have local or regional expenditure data to track the travel industry and develop public support for this economic sector. However, data
collection requires a visitor survey, and study and questionnaire design are complex. Seek assistance from industry professionals in developing a data base that accurately represents spending patterns.

Good restaurants and sufficient overnight lodging capacity are essential. Describe the mix of establishments, their occupancy, and their services. For example, do motels have facilities for families such as pools and playgrounds, or are they positioned to attract business meetings where evening entertainment may be a factor in the decision to make reservations? Grocery stores, specialty retail shops, entertainment and service stations also support the visitor

Questions about the adequacy of public services come into play. Transportation issues such as roadway congestion, parking and signing, restroom availability, and utilities (sewage and trash disposal) assume importance as the industry expands. Plans for a proposed megamall in the Twin include construction to widen roads in the area.

Tourism Today (questions 3, 4, and 5)

The tourism experience your community promotes now, whether or accidental, is generally a good indicator for the future. It is often easier to modify and market a travel experience that has evolved over time and is built on local flavor, than Do introduce and develop a new form of tourism that does not match local culture, environment, and heritage. Mississippi Rivertown Rendezvous, an organization promoting the towns along the river corridor from Hastings
to Winona, builds upon a common heritage and landscape.

Describe the visitor experience your community offers both in terms of tangibles: the resorts, the boating, the location, as well as the intangibles. Talk about customer benefits when you think about intangibles: rest and relaxation, friendliness, excitement. Then outline and valuate promotion strategies now in use to envision future options. Through survey or observation, determine who is buying your community's experience now. Customers who have visited (even though there may have been no major promotion campaign) are a good clue about the target market your community naturally appeals to.

Outside Influences (questions 6 through 9)

Tourism marketing occurs within a competitive marketplace that goes well beyond the community boundaries. There are many forms of competition for your customers and their
dollars-but neighboring communities generally are not one of them. A number of strong travel-oriented communities, working together on regional promotion, results in a stronger destination image, a greater variety of attractions and facilities, wider market exposure, and a healthy degree of competition that spurs improvements. The Land of Legends group -a ring of communities within 60 miles of Itasca State Park could not promote itself as a major destination without the involvement of many Chambers of Commerce. This "critical mass" of diverse attractions and quality services also enables the Land of Legends area to attract and host "fam" (familiarization) tours for travel writers and tour brokers as part of an overall marketing program.

More important, there is competition for how consumers spend their discretionary dollar. The purchase of a VCR, buying a more expensive car, or saving for a college education means less money is available for leisure and travel. You also have to be concerned with other destination areas on a national level. Consumers have worldwide choices today; you must understand your competition and their strategies to market your competitive advantages.

In promoting certain visitor experiences, assess what type of tourism is compatible with local lifestyles. For example, many residents of northwestern Minnesota enjoy the hunting opportunities. They use the same resource nonlocal hunters use. Conflicts over resource use must be negotiated before hunting is promoted as a primary visitor attraction. In other areas, emphasis on scattered small town activities is more appropriate than major new construction and facility development. The latest brochure for Southeastern Minnesota Historic Bluff Country emphasizes small- scale tourism businesses such as canoe rental, locally made arts and crafts, bed and breakfasts, and a lefsa factory tour. It is a format designed to encourage travelers to wander and explore the area, rather than directing everyone to a few major sites.

In addition, specify the roles various community organizations play in development and promotion, and understand social trends that influence your market position. React quickly when they occur. For example, the move toward shorter getaway mini- vacations is radically
changing travel industry strategies.

Where are We Now? (question 10)

Summarize findings on community attractions, services and facilities, the current travel industry and outside influences in a WRITTEN summary statement. Combine relevant in an outline of community strengths and weaknesses, problem opportunities for tourism. Spend sufficient time on this step: analysis is the basis for subsequent decisions about marketing your community's unique visitor experiences.

Identify Product

What is your community marketing? One main reason people travel is to experience a new and different environment. After the situation analysis, most communities find they are faced with multiple options for attracting tourists. The challenge is to choose one dominant identity among all these alternatives. You can not and should not promote all of the community attributes equally. In a tourism marketplace where consumers are faced with diverse choices, need an "edge" to set yourself apart from the competition. You need to create a unique product with a theme or identity that characterizes major promotion efforts. Red Lake Riverlands-Red Lake Falls, Thief River Falls, Crookston, East Grand Forks-features river uses like tubing and boat tours, and nearby food and lodging services.

The thirteen Iron Trail United Communities capitalize on the unique mining characteristics and strong ethnic heritage of the Range. Ironworld, with its train and festival series, Hill Annex Mine and Tower-Soudan State Park are the core attractions that support the mining theme. A region- wide visitor newspaper and radio information network are part of this cooperative marketing approach.

An example from the private sector is three ski resorts that offer the same hills, the same snow, and the same lift equipment. One business bills itself as a "mountain of hospitality," another is a family resort and the third sells serious, technical skiing.

A marketing theme is the one main idea or message you want to communicate. It should be based on satisfying visitor needs. Theme development requires creativity, and there are
advertising agencies that specialize in "positioning" a product in the marketplace and developing a parallel marketing campaign. Consult the Minnesota Extension Service sheet "Creating a Tourism Promotional Theme.

Select Target Markets

Who will buy the product your community is marketing? One certain way to fail is to try to please everyone. A target market is a group of individuals sharing common characteristics, toward whom marketing efforts will be directed. The process of dividing the total market into
high-potential target markets is called market segmentation and involves these steps:

- Identifying and describing the different segments that make up the total market;

- Evaluating the economic potential of each segment;

- Choosing one or more market segments on which to focus.

Current visitors are a good indication of target markets attracted to your community. New prospects are likely to have many of the same characteristics unless you are planning a product shift. Target markets can be defined by several factors: geography, demographics, and behavior.

Geography refers to potential visitors: where they live and they travel. Negative travel time and positive attraction factors are recognized widely as the two main variables that determine what customers choose to see and where they choose to go. Travel time and distance can be negative factors for potential visitors, but the power of an area's tourist attractions may be a counteracting positive factor. A destination that offers a large variety of interesting attractions has more pull, at an equal distance, than a location that offers only one or a few low interest attractions. This doesn't cancel the fact that travel to and from an area is an important part of the total experience, as "pass-through" communities have discovered.

Demographics refers to characteristics like age, sex, marital status, number and ages of children and life stage (young single adult or retired) that have direct and obvious effects on travel patterns. For example, unmarried men and married couples with young children have vastly different spending patterns.

Behavior refers to how potential tourists act, such as length of stay, new us. repeat visitors, and skills (novice expert). But market segmentation using behavior variables also refers to why they behave as they do, their interests, and their values. There are many factors that affect travel by individual consumers: the reasons for travel, activities enjoyed during travel, a person's general interests and opinions about travel, and personal values.

For one person, travel may mean a tour of museums, monuments and other cultural attractions. Another person may travel to a meeting of a professional organization. A
third person seeks amusement at a sporting event; another visits a park to fish. For different reasons they engage in different activities while traveling and value different types of attractions.

Information on behavior can be difficult and expensive to collect. Some details are available from observing visitors analyzing existing records, but most knowledge is likely to come from surveys or interviews. Work with a marketing professional about survey design to assure a representative sample if you try this method.

New and even established host communities must evaluate each major target market for its economic potential. Consider your product and estimate the drawing power of the attractions. Think about proximity to metropolitan areas and the quality of the transportation network. Consider the of people traveling near your area; consult Minnesota Department of Transportation records.

Use size and accessibility of the target market as criteria. There must be enough members of the target market justify the investment in reaching them. You must be able to reach the target market through a standard form of promotion. Boaters, runners, and anglers, for example, are very accessible: they belong to organizations and read specialized publications. In contrast, young single parents less accessible market because there is no common affiliation or central source of information.

Finally, select one or more of the target markets. You can concentrate on a single target market to the exclusion of all others, or you can use a strategy where promotion campaigns are developed for two or more markets simultaneously. It is likely you will change market segments during the season in the same way resort operators shift their marketing efforts from anglers (spring) to families (summer) to retired couples (fall).

Most important, a community shouldn't try to be all things to all consumers. Primary destination areas like the Twin Cities, state offices of tourism, and major attractions such as Disneyland have the resources to accomplish that. You are much more likely to be successful if you narrow down the target market you want to reach.

Set Marketing Objectives

Now write down marketing objectives that clearly state what community wants to accomplish in its promotion campaign. Objectives keep energy and action focused on what's important. They help you track your success and judge when it is time to review and shift strategies. A good objective contains four elements:

- A specific action of interest such as increased visitation, sales volume, or awareness;

- A measurable outcome, expressed in dollars, a percentage or numbers for example, that indicates how much change will

- A time frame within which the action should occur; and

- An indication of the target market you are trying to reach.

Some poorly stated objectives are "to increase visits," "to mid-week business," and "to attract more retired couples." In contrast, some examples of well-written objectives follow:

- In the next year, increase mid-week (Monday-Thursday) occupancy to 55 percent by attracting business travelers.

- The Chamber of Commerce will book 500 advance reservations from vacationers traveling the Lake Superior circle route in summer (June 1 through Labor Day).

- Increase phone and mail inquiries by 20 percent from fall magazine advertising between August 15 and October 15.

- Increase retail sales on main street during a summer festival by 25 percent over last year's.

Carry Out Promotion Strategies

Many communities and private entrepreneurs mistakenly assume that marketing is just deciding on a promotion strategy. They direct broad appeals to poorly defined markets through a variety of media. You can't afford to spend scarce promotion dollars in appealing to people who are not prospects for purchase of your product. Effective and efficient promotion decisions build from a situation analysis, identifying products, selecting target markets and setting objectives.

The message content comes directly from the product and the associated theme. It emphasizes both tangible and intangible aspects, focusing on customer benefits your product offers.

Carrying out promotion strategies involves taking your message to the consumer through a specific delivery system. Promotion is any attempt to stimulate sales by persuasive or informative communications to current or potential customers. The major types of promotion used to stimulate travel and tourism follow:

Advertising: Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor using mass media. Television, radio and print media some of the major Minnesota destinations are an example.

Personal Selling: An oral or written presentation to one or prospective customers on a face-to-face basis, including telephone solicitation and direct mail. Attendance at sports shows is a form of personal selling.

Sales Promotions: Activities other than advertising and personal selling that stimulate purchasing or create awareness. Sales promotions, including contests featuring free tickets or trips, may be geared toward the individual visitor, while other promotions may be directed toward organizations selling travel services (for example, travel agents). The Duluth contest to guess the date the first ship will enter the harbor in spring is an example.

Public Relations: A nonpaid presentation of ideas, goods or services generally using mass media. Unlike advertising there is no identifying sponsor. Travel feature stories written after a "fam" (familiarization) tour are a result of public relations efforts.

These promotional categories are known together as the promotional mix. Strictly speaking, the promotional mix refers to the relative amounts of efforts or dollars put into each major promotional category. To find its optimal tourism promotional mix, your community might look at towns comparable size and attracting power. However, do not copy programs- no two communities will be exactly alike.

Finally, the committee may be drawn from owners. The committee structure is used most often to guide tourism development. There are several ways to organize a tourism promotion committee. Some groups originate within the Chamber of Commerce because of shared goals. Others form free-standing community endeavor; the final plan must represent goals independent committees with community- wide representation.

The Minnesota Extension Service publication "Tourism Advertising: Some Basics" outlines a process for selecting an advertising strategy. The tools discussed include magazines, newspapers, radio, television, direct mail, and outdoor displays.

Evaluate Results

There is no secret promotional formula. Test and evaluate regularly. A community or business must continually monitor evaluate results, and experiment with various types of promotion. Even with an effective promotional mix now, the situation may change. Preferences and characteristics of travelers change: marketing efforts must respond.

Evaluate Results

The Minnesota Extension Service publication "Evaluating Tourism Advertising with Cost- Comparison Methods" describes methods such as cost per inquiry, cost per reservation, and return on investment. The importance of coding advertisements to track results cannot be

The Next Step

Working through the tourism development process is a community endeavor; the final plan must represent goals commonly agreed to by area residents and business owners. The committee is used most often to guide tourism development.

There are several ways to organize a tourism promotion committee. Some groups originate within the Chamber of Commerce because of shared goals. Others form free-standing
independent committees with community-wide representation. Finally, the committee may be drawn from current leaders in existing tourism agencies, associations, businesses, and attractions. You know the dynamics of your community best to pull together a core group of individuals make things happen.

There must be periodic feedback between the committee and the community at large. In some locations, the tourism committee begins its task with a community-wide survey (by mail, newspaper, or phone) to solicit opinions about tourism development. The results advise the committee and can create a widespread base of public support early in the process. The other strategy is to be sure there is always an opportunity for community discussion at key decision points. The local media can play a major role in keeping the public informed.

Here are seven steps to get started (from "Developing a Tourism Organization," 1987, a Michigan State University Extension Service booklet):

1. Select a name that creates an image and identifies the group.

2. Develop a policy statement, including a statement of purpose and by-laws.

3. Develop an action program: set goals and methods of accomplishing them.

4. Set up committees and sub-committees as needed. Some of the major tasks relate to community involvement, attractions and support services, promotion, budgets, research, and information.

5. Create community awareness and support for tourism.

6. Establish lines of communication and develop a flow of information.

7. Foster a spirit of close cooperation and coordination among the various communities, agencies, and other organizations.

Where to Look for Funding

Often good community marketing plans go unrealized or even unused because financial support could not be obtained. Funding can be a difficult obstacle. Communities that have
developed a steady and reliable source of marketing funds generally have the most success. Constant scrambling for marketing funds drains energy away from the original
marketing objectives.

Some of the basic strategies used to raise money for tourism and travel marketing are a lodging tax, local government sources, internal organizational fundraising, private businesses, foundations, and the Minnesota Office of Tourism. Adapt these standard methods to your local situation.

Minnesota Statutes permit the creation of a local option lodging tax. Home rule or statutory cities and townships with elected officials may enact a tax of up to three percent on the proceeds of a lodging facility-with a possible extension to municipal campgrounds. In unorganized townships, county officials may enact a lodging tax. Cities townships can create joint districts to better reflect the local tourism region.

Of the proceeds collected, 95 percent must be used to fund marketing and promotion of the area as a tourism or convention destination. These monies may not be used for capital expenditures such as buildings, parks, and civic centers. Lodging facilities are directly affected by the tax, so any plans for a lodging tax should include early discussions with representatives of overnight accommodations.

Some communities have had special legislation passed to help fund tourism programs: two options are expansion of the tax base or increases in the tax ceiling. It is normally difficult to pass special interest legislation, but such authority can prove valuable to communities where
tourism is a major industry.

Many local governments recognize the importance of the tourism and travel industry to their economies; a number of provide funding to marketing programs implemented by local groups. Monies can come from the general fund, bonding sources, special assessments, or a variety of other sources. Government support can greatly assist local marketing efforts, but funding is less stable due to changing demands for government funds, the health of the
local economy, and the fortunes of local politicians.

Tourism organizations typically employ some internal fundraising strategies, in addition to outside sources. Membership dues is the most common method. Set either a standard rate or variable fees based on factors such as business size or number of employees. The organization's ability to attract members then becomes critical.

Assessments above and beyond dues are another alternative. Assessments are often based on percent of gross revenue or business size. These may help to fund an overall marketing
program, but are also used to pay for specific promotional efforts.

Tourism organizations can also sell products, services, and activities directly to the public for income. Examples are publications, souvenirs and merchandise, tours and tour guides, and operation of attractions, special events, festivals or auctions.

Major businesses operating in the community and benefitting from travel and tourism sometimes make substantial contributions to a marketing program. An important element
in obtaining this support is to thoroughly identify the benefits of such a contribution, both to the marketing program and the contributor. Direct benefits -increased sales- as well as secondary benefits -general expansion of the local economy- are important. Tax benefits may be an issue. Do not overlook the potential to build goodwill in the community.

There are opportunities to obtain project- specific grants through organizations such as foundations, the Minnesota Office of Tourism and nonlocal private businesses that will fund ongoing expenses for tourism marketing. Projects that provide promotion to an expanded region or attempt to market an area with an innovative approach are more likely to attract a foundation grant. The Minnesota Office of Tourism administers a joint venture marketing program that allocates matching funds on a competitive basis for advertising, creative marketing, and new brochure development. Private businesses beyond the specific area might also sponsor an activity if there is a connection between their product and the focus of the event. For example, dog food manufacturers could be approached for national sponsorship of a sled dog race.

Travel and Tourism Resources

Tourism USA: Guidelines for Tourism Development. 1986. University of Missouri, Dept. of Recreation and Park Administration, University Extension. Prepared for the U.S. of Commerce. 227 pp.
-Excellent "how to" handbook with sections on ) appraising potential; 2) planning for tourism; 3) assessing product and market; 4) marketing tourism; visitor services; sources of assistance. Single copies are available for $3.00 from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1 4th &
Constitution, Room 1 865, Washington, D.C. 20030, 202 -377 -0140.

Managing Small Resorts for Profit. 1 985. Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota. 205 pp.
-Contains a marketing section with articles on the market planning process, brochure development, advertising, positioning and package tours. Available for $20.00 from
Bud Crewdson, Small Business Development Center, Minnesota Extension Service, 248 Classroom Office Building, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 551 08, 61 2 -625- 31

Minnesota Office of Tourism, 250 Skyway Level, 375 Jackson Street, St. Paul, MN 551 0 1, 1 -800 -652 -9141, 6 1 2 -296 - Contact for information on a joint venture marketing
program. Marketing activities may be eligible for matching funds allocated on a competitive basis to any local, regional, or statewide nonprofit organization formed to promote tourism.

Tourism Center, Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota, 240 Coffey Hall, 1420 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108.
-Offers educational programs and materials for the visitor industry on community tourism development and small business management. Contact your local county extension
agent for copies of the extension publications listed in the folder.

So Your Community Wants Tourism: Guidelines for Developing Income from Tourism in Your Community (CD -FO -0679, Available 1988)

Creating a Tourism Promotional Theme (Available Jan. 1988)

Tourism Advertising: Some Basics (CD -FO -331 1 )

"Evaluating Tourism Advertising with Cost Comparison Methods" (CD -FO -3372)

Tourism Brochures to Boost Business (CD -FO -3273)

Community Improvement Resources

Tourism development depends on citizen cooperation to accomplish community goals and improve the local environment. The Minnesota Department of Trade and Economic development administers four such programs that give residents an opportunity to develop expertise in identifying and using community resources-the Minnesota Community Improvement Program, the Governor's Design Team, Minnesota Main Street, and Minnesota Beautiful. Program coordinators can be reached at the Department of Trade and
Economic Development, 900 American Center Building, 1 50 East Kellogg Blvd., St. Paul, MN 551 01. The general office number is 612 -297- 3190.

The Minnesota Community Improvement Program (MCIP) is a community (or county) revitalization and recognition program. Citizens conduct a community analysis and set
goals. They build broad support networks and document the improvement process so that MCIP judges can evaluate annual progress. The Minnesota Extension Service provides
educational and technical support. Involvement in MCIP can build the skills and coalitions necessary to accomplish other specific tasks such as economic development, downtown
revitalization and design, and beautification.

The Governor's Design Team calls on architects, landscape designers, urban planners, artists, and other professionals volunteer their time and services and virtually descend on
a community for a two- to three- day intensive design consultation and work session. Communities want the team to a fresh look and new ideas in such areas a downtown
revitalized town image, and development potential. Before applying for a visit, the community should focus on specific issues and areas of need. During a visit, broad -based active citizen support and involvement is expected.

Minnesota Main Street encourages revitalization of downtowns in small and midsize cities, working with assets already inherent in the downtown tradition. Rebuilding main street's image depends on improvements in organization, promotion, design, and economic restructuring, made in ooperation with downtown groups.

Minnesota Beautiful supports activities that help keep Minnesota a clean and quality place to live, work, and visit. Projects include recycling, landscaping, general cleanup of waste materials and unsightly areas, tree planting, and mineland reclamation. Minnesota Beautiful
offers educational materials to communities undertaking these projects, and organizes an annual conference to recognize significant progress.


Barbara A. Koth is an assistant extension specialist, Tourism Development, University of Minnesota.

Glenn M. Kreag is a tourism Recreation agent, Minnesota Sea Extension Program, Duluth.

The authors gratefully acknowledge review contributions from Cheryl Offerman, Colleen 1119, and Marcia Naber, Minnesota Office of Tourism; Rodney Elmstrand, Chicago County Extension Service (North Branch); and Larry Simonson, Minnesota Extension Service (Grand Rapids).

Many thanks to Patrick J. Moore, Franz A. Richter and Karen Arv Has Society, Milan, for permission to reprint from the local brochure.

The information given in this publication is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products trade names is made with the understanding that no endorsement by the Minnesota Extension service is implied.

This information is for educational purposes only. References to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. This information becomes public property upon publication and may be printed verbatim with credit to MSU Extension. Reprinting cannot be used to endorse or advertise a commercial product or company. This file was generated from data base TD on 09/30/03. Data base TD was last revised on 06/06/02. For more information about this data base or its contents please contact [email protected] . Please read our disclaimer for important information about using our site.

Archived Document: This Extension bulletin is no longer available from the publishing State and may contain outdated information.

Source: http://web1.msue.msu.edu/msue/imp/modtd/33520052.html
Authors: Koth, Barbara; Kreag, Glenn

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